Scriptores

539_BG

Regestum

In the midst of the war between the Roman Empire under Emperor Justinian I and the Ostrogoths in Italy, the Roman general Belisarius plans the siege of the Ostrogothic capital Ravenna; The Po valley is blocked as Belisarius commands Vitalius, magister militum per Illyricum, to depart with his army from Dalmatia and subject the Ostrogothic towns of regio Venetia; traditionally taken as marking the Byzantine conquest of Ostrogothic Istria and the beginning of the centuries-long rule of the Eastern Roman Empire in Istria (narrative accounts from Procopius of Cesearea's History of the Wars).

Date
539

544_BG

Regestum

Belisarius and Vitalius, the generals of Emperor Justinian I's army, draft new soldiers across Thrace and Illyricum as they prepare for a new assault against the Ostrogoths in Italy; they stop in Pula to regroup before sailing to Ravenna to engage the enemies (narrative accounts from Procopius' History of the Wars).

Date
Circa 544

546_LPR

Regestum

Emperor Justinian I has Pope Vigilius I consecrate Maximian, a deacon from Pula, as the new bishop of Ravenna; once installed as bishop, Maximian embarks on several architectural projects, including the building of the Santa Maria Formosa church in Pula (narrative accounts from the Life of Saint Maximian written by Agnellus of Ravenna in his Book of the Pontiffs of the Church of Ravenna).

Date
4th of October 546 (the ordination of Maximian as the bishop of Ravenna) to 22nd of February 556/7 (the presumed death of Bishop Maximian)

550_BG

Regestum

Emperor Justinian I appoints his cousin Germanus as the commander-in-chief of his army fighting against King Totila in Italy; the promise of a renewed war effort against the Ostrogoths under a famous military commander encourages men across the region to rally under imperial banner as they journey to Istria, awaiting the arrival of Germanus (narrative accounts from Procopius of Cesearea's History of the Wars).

Date
550

560_VF1

Regestum

A poem composed by Venantius Fortunatus to a Vitalis, a bishop of Ravenna, traditionally identified as Maximian of Ravenna, but also as bishop Vitalis of Milan, bishop Vitalis of Altino, or even an eponymous, otherwise undocumented bishop of Pula.

Date
C. 560
Place

560_VF2

Regestum

Venantius Fortunatus composes a poem in celebration of the construction of the church of St. Andrew, built by a Vitalis, the bishop of Ravenna (most probably a laudatory nickname for Bishop Maximian).

Date
Circa 560
Place

568_HL

Regestum

Lombards under King Alboin invade Italy and conquer Friuli; Gisulf I, Alboin's nephew, is made the ruler (duke) of Friuli; Paulinus, the incumbent patriarch of Aquileia, flees from Aquileia due to the invasion and finds shelter in Grado where he hides the treasury of his Church as well (narrative account from Paul the Deacon's History of the Lombards).

Date
Between April of 568 and 569

574_PBA

Regestum

Pope Benedict I officially sanctions the transfer of the episcopal see from Aquileia to Grado; 11th-century forgery included in the Chronicle of Grado.

Date
Between 574 and 578, but in reality an 11th-century forgery

587_HL

Regestum

Lombard King Authari dispatches an army led by duke Ewin of Trento to attack Istria, at the time a Byzantine province. Following successful Lombard attacks, a one-year peace is negotiated between the warring parties (narrative account from Paul the Deacon's History of the Lombards). 

Date
Circa 587

590_HL

Regestum

Following the death of Aquileian patriarch Helias, his successor, Patriarch Severus, together with three other bishops (including the bishop of Poreč, John) are imprisoned in Ravenna by the Byzantine exarch Smaragdus; in order to buy their freedom, the prelates agree to condemn the Three Chapters and reunite with Rome, a move that greatly angers other bishops in the ecclesiastical province of Aquileia. Finally, a synod is held in Marano (591) whereby Patriarch Severus is forced to formally acknowledge the error of his ways in supporting the condemnation of the Three Chapters (narrative accounts from Paul the Deacon's History of the Lombards).

Date
590-591

591_HL

Regestum

The regions of Ravenna, Grado, and Istria are ravaged by the so-called Justinianic plague as Agilulf, King of the Lombards, makes peace with the Avars (narrative accounts from Paul the Deacon's History of the Lombards).

Date
591

602_HL

Regestum

Perpetual peace is celebrated between the Lombard King Agilulf and the Avar Khagan as Byzantine Istria is attacked by the combined forces of the Lombards, Avars, and Slavs (narrative account from Paul the Deacon's History of the Lombards).

Date
Circa 602

607_HL

Regestum

Following the death of Aquileian patriarch Severus, two new patriarchs are ordained: John, supported by the Lombards and with his seat in Aquileia; and Candidianus, supported by the Romans (Byzantines) with his seat in Grado - the definitive and official split of the patriarchate of Aquileia into two patriarchal sees (narrative account from Paul the Deacon's History of the Lombards).

Date
Circa 607

612_HL

Regestum

Lombard King Agilulf renews peace with the Byzantine Emperor and the Franks as the Slavs ravage across Istria (narrative accounts from Paul the Deacon's History of the Lombards).

Date
612

641_IM

Regestum

Pope John IV dispatches abbot Martin to journey across Dalmatia and Istria to ransom the captives (imprisoned, one would assume, by the still pagan Slavs) and return the relics of the saints from these endangered places to Rome; narrative account from the Book of the Popes (Liber pontificalis).

Date
641
Place

695_HL

Regestum

Ansfrit of Ragogna rebels against Rodoald, the Lombard duke of Friuli, and conquers his duchy as Rodoald flees to Istria from where he sails to Ravenna and finally reaches King Cunipert in Pavia (narrative account from Paul the Deacon's History of the Lombards).

Date
Circa 695

698_SP

Regestum

Under Lombard King Cunipert, the Synod of Pavia takes place where the representatives of the schismatic clergy of the ecclesiastical province of Aquileia officially accept the decrees of the 5th Ecumenical Council (Constantinople II) and finally desist from their schism; narrative account from the contemporary "Poem on the Synod of Pavia" (Carmen or Rythmus de Synodo Ticiensi).

Date
698 or 699
Place

751_CS

Regestum

Lombard King Aistulf defeats and captures Eutychius, the Exarch of Ravenna, conquering the Byzantine Exarchate in Italy and further expanding the Lombard Kingdom over Comacchio, Ferrara and Istria (narrative account from the Salerno Chronicle).

Date
750-751

780_VA

Regestum

Late 8th-century poem lamenting the destruction of Aquileia at the hands of the Huns in the mid-5th century, composed either by Paulinus II of Aquileia (ⴕ 802) or Paul the Deacon; the poem was later used by Venetian authors to argue that Aquileia had never been restored following this destruction and that Grado, therefore, succeeded it as the capital of the ecclesiastical province of Venetia et Histria.

Date
Between c. 760 and c. 800

788_CBI

Regestum

Narrative sources on the events of 788 that resulted, among a variety of other things, with Istria being incorporated into the Frankish kingdom.

Date
788

799_CDH

Regestum

A poem dedicated to the memory of the late Duke Eric of Friuli, composed by Patriarch of Aquileia Paulinus II.

Date
Between 799 and 802

828_ARF

Regestum

Emperor Louis the Pious deposes several marcher officials – including Baldric, the duke of Friuli – from their offices due to their military impotence. As a result of Baldric’s deposition, the March of Friuli – which included Istria – is divided into four counties governed by their respective counts.

Date
February of 828
Place

844_CA

Regestum

A poem composed in response to the Synod of Mantua (6th of June, 827), arguing that Aquileia, the old metropolitan see of the ecclesiastical province Venetia et Histria, was so thoroughly destroyed by barbarians (Attila, the Avars, Lombards and Goths) that it was never rebuilt; thus, the metropolitan see transferred to "the Venetians" and Aquileia was demoted to a status of a mere parish.

Date
c. 850 (between 844 and 855)

952_OMA

Regestum

After having invaded and conquered Italy, King Otto I convokes a diet in Augsburg whereby he bestowed upon the defeated Berengar II and his son Adalbert the Kingdom of Italy, albeit somewhat reduced: the marches of Verona and Aquileia were ripped off from Italy and appended to the Duchy of Bavaria, governed by Otto's brother Henry. Since Istria formed part of the "March of Aquileia" (i. e. Friuli), this event marks the beginning of a new chapter of Istrian history.

Date
August of 952
Place

970_SE

Regestum

Excerpts from the family chronicle of the counts of Sempt-Ebersberg regarding Ulrich I, the count of the march of Carniola; his heirs Adalbero II, Eberhard II and Williburga II; and Hademoud II, the daughter of Williburga II and the only surviving direct heir of House Sempt-Ebersberg. Hademoud II would marry Poppo II of Weimar-Orlamünde with whom she would have Ulrich I, the first margrave of Istria.

Date
c. 970 to c. 1045 (written in the second half of the 11th century)
Place