880_PAV

Era
Vol. 2: A 804 usque ad 1077
Date
January of 880
Place
Regestum

Venice, represented by Doge Orso I Participazio, and the Patriarchate of Aquileia, represented by Patriarch Walpert, sign a treaty according to which the Venetian Doge agrees not to block the Aquileian port Pylum, but only under the condition that the patriarch stops with all the hostilities directed against the Church of Grado and exempts the Venetians from all the tolls on his territories, according to the old customs.

Source
The original is lost; the text survives only in later copies, all of them stemming from the following manuscript:
B = Venice, Archivio di Stato di Venezia, Pacta e aggregati, Codex Trevisaneus, fol. 76r (57r according to old pagination); late 15th-/early 16th-century simple copy.
Previous Editions
Reinhard Härtel (ed.), I patti con il patriarcato di Aquileia 880–1255 Pacta Veneta 12 (Rome 2005), doc. 1, pp. 25–27 (with references to all the older editions); replacing all the cases of diphthongs and the letter -ę with an -e.
FIM Edition
FIM Edition: Diplomatic edition based on B, retaining all the diphthongs and the use of the letter -ę.
Transcription

In nomine sanctę et individuę Trinitatis.

Imperantibus dominis nostris Basilio et Leone a Deo coronatis, pacificisa [et]b magnis imperatoribus, anno autem imperii eorum tertiodecimo, mensis ianuarii, indictione tertiadecimac, Venetia, curte pallatii.

Omnia quae ab superni regis amorem sanctarumque ecclesiarum vigorem inter partes pura mente conveniunt necesse est scripturae stilo roborari, ne per temporalium rerum spatia ea quae finiuntur oblivioni traduntur.

Igitur nos quidem ‡Ursus‡d divino fretus auxilio imperialis prothospatarius et Veneticorum dux, promittentese promittimus vobis Hualperto reverentissimo patriarchae Aquilegiensi ut, si observare satagitis ea quae nobis simili modo per promissionis paginam polliciti estis servare erga sanctam Dei nostram Gradensem metropolim, id est ut nullam amplius adversus eandem ecclesiam subthractionem sive contrarietatem faciatis vel facere iubeatis, nec per vos ipsos nec per aliorum retractatione[m]f, aut aliqua questione in sedibus beatorum martyrum Marci evangelistae et Hermagorę, necnon in rebus, impropiisg, in ecclesiis ceuh cęteris universis locis ibidem pertinentibus, ita et nos observare spondimus ut, usque dum Christo favente isto in sęculo vixeretis, portum vestrum qui vocatur Pylum nulla intentione claudere iubeamus, sed, sicut multo ex tempore apertus extitit, similiter et modo apertus consistat in tali tenore ut nostris omni honor, quicquid annuatim haberi exinde debeamus, salvetur atque ad nos deferatur, et populus noster qui ibi advenerit nullum gravamen aut suprapositam vel forcias patiatur, sed more antiquo sua ibi securiter omnes et vendat et emat, immo et mansiones quatuor nostrę quę ibi sunt, ut mos fuit, salventur, et ex nostro negocio proprio nullum ibi solvatur tributum, quia talis declaratur fuisse prisca consuetudo.

Quod si haec omnia quae supra legitur inlibate observaveritis et nos contra hoc quod spondimus ire presumpserimus, prostimo solvere debeamus vobis auri libras XXX, et post pęnę solutionem haec promissio in sua maneat firmitate.

In simili cartula, quam facere iussi ego Ursus dux Veneticorum ad nomen prefati Hualperti patriarchę Foriiulii, sunt intromissę subtus manus nostrę et Ioannis filii nostri.

Testes autem fuerunt:
imprimis Armatus tribunus de Lupriusi et Vigilius tribunus de Geminis.
Signum manus Lubianoj Aulibado primato de Lubrius.
Signum manus Ioannis vel Ioannini de Mastalico.
Signum manus Leonis Patricii.
Signum manus Petri filii Ioannisk ducis.
Signum manus Pantaleonis Abrolino.
Signum manus Leon Corozali.
Signum manus Ioannis Granzarolo.

Et Dominicus presbiter cancellarius noster scripsit hoc et illud.

Apparato critico

aex pacifis corr. B.  bom. B; em. Härtel.  cseq. spatium vacuum circa 3 seu 4 litterarum reliquit B.  d) Igitur—Ursus] subsignavit B.  e) imperialis—promittentes] subsignavit B.  f) retractione B; retractionem em. Härtel.  gsic impropiis cum sign. abbr. supra primam litteram i et subsignavit B: pro in propriis.  hsic B: pro seu.  inisi Luprias B.  jnisi Iubiano B.  kseq. verbum canc. B.

Medieval Recollections

“Iam dudum quoque urgens discordia inter Venetos et Foroiullianos, pacis dulcedine sopita est. Promisit namque Hvalpertus patriarcha Aquilegiensis Gradensem metropolim nec fines vel iurisdictiones eius non invadere, vel aliquo alio modo inquietare vel turbare; et ei, dum vixerit, Ursus dux promisit portum vocatum Pylum apertum permitere, ita tamen ut honor sibi debitus conservetur; et ei deferratur et populus suus in vendendo vel emendo ultra solitum non gravetur, et quatuor mansiones quas dux in Aquilegiensi foro optinet ei reservate sint; neque de negocio ducis proprio debeat solvere dacium vel tributum.” – Andrea Dandolo, Chronica per extensum descripta, ed. Pastorello, RIS, ser. 2, 12/1 (Bologna 1958), p. 160.

Selected Bibliography
Reinhard Härtel (ed.), I patti con il patriarcato di Aquileia 880–1255 Pacta Veneta 12 (Rome 2005), pp. 16–24.
Editor's Notes

The oldest surviving pact signed between Venice and the Patriarchate of Aquileia, the 880 document is in essence a promissio of the Venetian doge Orso issued to Patriarch Walpert, promising the end of all hostilities between the neighbors and sanctioning the status quo ante bellum.

The bellum in question is the Aquileian attempt at forcibly implementing the decisions of the Synod of Mantua of 827 (see it edited here) by which Grado was pronounced a mere parish of the Patriarchate of Aquileia, a metropolitan Church whose jurisdiction ought to include all the Istrian bishoprics. Since these decisions proved impossible to implement, Patriarch Walpert decided to invade and subjugate Grado, the center of the competing patriarchate that also sought metropolitan rights over Istrian bishoprics (see more on this fateful enmity here).

The invasion of Grado was greeted by Venice’s blocking of the Aquileian port Pylum, a paleonym whose precise geographical location is difficult to ascertain (most probably to be identified with Porto Buso to the west of Aquileia, in the lagoon of Marano, although some, like Pier Silverio Leicht, identified it with the city of Aquileia, see Härtel, cited above, pp. 22–23).

The “pact” was signed pretty much simultaneously with the signing of the treaty between Venice and Charles III the Fat in Ravenna (soon to be edited here), essentially confirming the old pactum Lotharii signed in 840 (see it edited here). Thus, the (re)established amicable relationship between Venice and the Empire catalyzed the amicable settlement of the conflict between the Church of Grado and the Patriarchate of Aquileia.

The charter is also notable for being the oldest documented mention of a ducal chancellor of Venice.

How to Cite
First citation: Josip Banic (ed.), Fontes Istrie medievalis, vol. 2: A 804 usque ad 1077, doc. 880_PAV, fontesistrie.eu/880_PAV (last access: date).
Subsequent citations: FIM, 2: doc. 880_PAV.