1027_SR

Era
Vol. 2: A 804 usque ad 1077
Date
6th of April, 1027
Place
Regestum

Pope John XIX and Emperor Conrad II convene a synod in Rome whereby the decrees of the Synod of Mantua from 827 are confirmed and the patriarch of Aquileia is once again proclaimed the sole metropolitan head of the ecclesiastical province of Aquileia with Grado being a mere parish subjected to his metropolitan and diocesan authority.

Source
The original acts are lost; the text survives as a late-12th-century copy:
B = Udine, Archivio Storico Diocesano, Archivio del Capitolo di Udine, Raccolta Pergamene, vol. 1/A, doc. 5; a copy made by notary Peter, active in Friuil during the last quarter of the 12th century.
Previous Editions
Ludwig Weiland (ed.), Constitutiones et acta publica imperatorum et regum, vol. 1, Monumenta Germaniae historica (Hannover 1893), doc. 38: Conradi II. et Iohannis XIX. synodus Romana, pp. 82–83.
FIM Edition
Diplomatic edition based on B with readings differing from Weiland’s edition reported in the critical apparatus, including the notarial attestation of notary Peter given in italics. Ms. B features several lacunae, the biggest one being the tear in the upper left corner of the parchment; where possible, these lacunae have been emended following the emendations given in Weiland’s editions cited above; all the emendations are enclosed in square brackets.
Transcription

[In nomine domini Dei et]a salvatoris nostri Iesu Christi.

Imperante Chuonrado perpetuo augusto anno primo, octavo idus aprilis, indicione decima, presidente sancto ac beatissimo nonodecimo Iohanne [universali pape Sedis] Apostolice urbis Rome, unacum predicto imperatore in ecclesia domini Dei et salvatoris nostri Iesu Christi que vocatur Constantiniana, residentibus eciam viris venerabilibus pariterque cum eis […] […]ibus Heriberto Ravenate archiepiscopo, Sigifredo Placentino episcopo, Petro Adrianensib, Teuberto Foropopulensi, Heriberto Mediolanensi archiepiscopo, Arderico Verzelensic episcopo, Oberto Albensi, […] [Ambrosi]od Bergomensi, Harpone Magontinoe archiepiscopo, Brunone Augustense episcopo, Wecilino Straburgensi, Warmundo Constanciense, Popone archiepiscopo Treverense, Tiemone Zalsburgensef archiepiscopo […] Neapolitano archiepiscopo, Tebaldo Belletrinense episcopo, Benedicto Portuense, Petro Silvecandide, Petro Penestrinense, Petro Ostiense, Teubaldo Albanense, Domenico Sutriense, Liutolfo Trebense, Raineriog Nenfesineh […] […]i Narniense, Iohanne Tuscanense, Iohanne O[…]ense, Bosone Tiburtinense, Iohanne Castrense, Benedicto Agnanensej, Iohanne Luzense, Iacobo Fesulense, Dodone Nocerense, Widone Lunense, Teubaldo Aretino, Lamberto Floren[ti]no, Widone Lucino, Iohanne Suanense, Gon[fred]ok Vulterano, Marciano Zesenatol, Widone Pisturiense, Leone Senense; Venecie provincie: Iohanne Veronense, Alberico Cumano, Helmengero Cenetense, Teubaldo Vicentino, Rothario Tarvisiano, Albuino Belunensem; abbatibus quoque Ǒdelonen Cluniacense, Berno Augense, Teoberto de Sancto Angelo, Benedicto Sestenseo, Chuonrado Sancti Savini, Widone de Sancta Trinitate, Alberto de Sancto Apostolo, Iohanne de Sancto Sepulchrop, Widone de Leuna, Widone de Sancta Maria, Petro de Sancto Petro ad Vincula, Stephano de Sancto Andrea, Franco de Sancto Anastasio, Teuzone Montisviridiq, Petro de Sancto Petro in Campo, Rozone de Turre, Dominico de Sancto Geruncio et Petro de Campo Leonis.

Popo venerabilis patriarcha sancte Aquileiensis ecclesie apostolicis et inperialibusr pedibus advolutus eorum et sacratissimi concilii reverenciam humiliter deprecatus est, uti omnipotentis amore Domini necnon apostolica et imperiali pietate lamentacionibus suis benignum auditum preberent, multisque a[nte]cessorum suorum proclamacionibus pro Gradu, Aquileiensis ecclesie plebe, sinodaliters factis certum finem imponerent. Cuius lamentacione beni[gne su]sceptat, Urso, qui in eadem plebe falsum patriarche nomen susceperat, olim tempore b[ea]ti Benedicti pape atque Henrici imperatoris ad Ravenatemu atque Romanam necnon Veronensem synodum canonice apellatusv, nunc qu[oque ad]w sacratissimum concilium apostolicis literis convocatus presenciam suam exhiberex iususy est. Sed cum bis et ter per Romanum archidiaconum vocatus abesset, Petrus Veneticorum diaconus affuit, apostolicas lit[eras U]rsoni advenisse negavit. Verum cum hoc iureiurando adfirmare n[ega]ssetz, seque pro huius rei negocio non venisse manifestaret, sinodali decreto Adalgerus Aquilegensisa' ecclesie archidiaconus vice Poponis patriarche et senioris sui per sancta evuageliab' comprobavit, Maionem Concordiensem episcopum apostolicam epistolam Ursoni detulisse eumque ex apostolica auctoritate ad synodum convocasse. Relecta sunt ergo ad hec in eadem synodo scripta Aquilegensis ecclesie, que inter plurimas Aquilegensium patriarcharum proclamaciones asserebant, beatum Eugenium papam tempore Loduwicic' et Lotharii imperatorum hanc inveterate proclamacionis controversiam inter Maxencium Aquilegensem patriarcham et Vener[ium]d' Gradensem in Mantuana synodo ventilasse atque apostolica necnon synodali auctoritate Gradensem plebem Aquilegensi ecclesie restituisse, atque pontificali sede ibidem omnino prohibita, predictam Aquilegensem ecclesiam capud et metropolim tocius Venecie constituisse.

Quod quia predicti Ursonis et antecessorum eius temeritate violatum est, decrevit sancta synodus Ursonem tociens presenciam denegantem de absencia nil lucrari, et Poponem patriarcham de Gradensi plebe cum suis pertinenciis ad ius Aquilegensis ecclesie revestiri, ita ut pontificali sede ibidem prohibita, perpetuis temporibus sancte Aquilegensi ecclesie diocesis iure subiaceat.

Reverendissimus igitur papa et piisimus imperator, secundum quod predictum est, Poponem patriarcham de Gradensi plebe pastorali virga investientes, ex apostolico et imperiali decreto hoc privilegium, Aquilegensi ecclesie et Poponi patriarche sub anathematis vinculo inviolabiliter permansurum, Romane ecclesie bibliothecario scribere iusserunt.

Ego Petrus notarius, ut vidi in privilegio, ita scripsi, nec dictum vel silabam adidi nec pretermisi (SC).

Apparato critico

alac. B; em. Weiland.  b) Adrianense et saepe -ense loco -ensi ed. Weiland.  c) Verzellense ed. Weiland.  dlac. B; em. Banic iuxta Gams, Series episcoporum, vol. 1, p. 778.  e) Maguntino ed. Weiland.  fsic B; Salsburgense ed. Weiland.  g) Reinerio ed. Weiland.  hlect. dub. ; Nepesino ed. Weiland.  i) episcopo ed. Weiland, sed propter lacunam legi non potest.  j) Anagnense ed. Weiland.  kem. Banic.  l) Cesenate ed. Weiland.  m) Bellunense ed. Weiland.  n) Vodelone ed. Weiland.  o) Sextense ed. Weiland.  p) Sepulcro ed. Weiland.  q) Montisviridis ed. Weiland.  rsic B; imperialibus ed. Weiland.  s) synodaliter ed. Weiland.  t) benigne suscepta] lac. B; em. Weiland.  u) Ravennatem ed. Weiland.  v) appellatus ed. Weiland.  w) quoque ad] lac. B; em. Weiland.  xex exibere corr. al. man. B.  y) iussus ed. Weiland.  zlac. B; em. Weiland.  a'ex Aquileiensis corr. B; Aquileiensis ed. Weiland et saepe sic loco Aquilegensis.  b'sic B: pro evangelia, sicut ed. Weiland.  c') Luduwici ed. Weiland.  d'lac. B; em. Weiland.

Medieval Recollections

Pope John XIX’s confirmation of the verdict of this synod, issued in September of 1027 – edited here.

Emperor Conrad II’s confirmation of the verdict of this synod, issued on the 4th of March, 1034 – edited here.

Selected Bibliography
Pio Paschini, “Vicende del Friuli durante il dominio della casa imperiale di Franconia,” Memorie storiche forogiuliesi 9 (1913): pp. 19–21.
Paul Fridolin Kehr, “Rom und Venedig bis ins 12. Jahrhundert,” Quellen und Forschungen aus italienischen Archiven und Bibliotheken 19 (1927): pp. 88–90.
Herwig Wolfram, Conrad II, 990–1039: Emperor of Three Kingdoms, trans. Denise A. Kaiser (University Park 2006), pp. 106–9.
Peter Štih, “Gradež kot Aquileia nova in Split kot Salona nova? Lokalno zgodovinopisje in oblikovanje krajevne identitete,” Zgodovinski časopis 71/3–4 (2017): p. 358.
Editor's Notes

The synod of 1027 is a perfect example of imperial influence over the papacy as the very Pope John XIX confirmed Grado’s metropolitan jurisdictions just three years earlier (soon to be edited here) and essentially proclaimed the Synod of Mantua of 827 (see the acts edited here) as devoid of any legal force.

According to Wolfram, Conrad II’s decision to support Aquileian Patriarch Poppo over the Venetian Patriarchate of Grado was ill-considered: “Taken to its logical extreme, Poppo’s stance would have given him jurisdiction over the ‘parish’ of Venice. Conrad’s decision to support this totally unrealistic enterprise was a consequence of his politically conservative mentality—characteristic of the rural German aristocracy—and proved to have a major impact on the emperor’s policies” (Wolfram, cited above, p. 109).

As the Synod of Mantua, so too did the Synod of Rome of 1027 proved to be impossible to implement. Both Pope John XIX as well as Emperor Conrad II confirmed the decisions of the Synod (papal confirmation edited here, imperial confirmation edited here), but already in 1044 Pope Benedict IX reversed the papal position regarding the dispute and went back to supporting the Patriarchate of Grado over Aquileia (soon to be edited here). Thus, the controversy over the metropolitan jurisdictions between the two patriarchs was far from over.

For an overview of the entire controversy and its inception in the Early Middle Ages, see the “Editor’s Comments” in this document: 568_HL.

How to Cite
First citation: Josip Banic (ed.), Fontes Istrie medievalis, vol. 2: A 804 usque ad 1077, doc. 1027_SR, fontesistrie.eu/1027_SR (last access: date).
Subsequent citations: FIM, 2: doc. 1027_SR.