Vol. 1: A seculo VI usque ad 803
Circa 695

Ansfrit of Ragogna rebels against Rodoald, the Lombard duke of Friuli, and conquers his duchy as Rodoald flees to Istria from where he sails to Ravenna and finally reaches King Cunipert in Pavia (narrative account from Paul the Deacon's History of the Lombards).

Paul the Deacon, History of the Lombards, book 6, chap. 3. Original autograph is lost, numerous copies from 8th century onwards exist (cf. Bethmann's and Waitz's edition referenced below). FIM edition is based on the following manuscript:
B = Cividale del Friuli, Museo Archeologico Nazionale, Archivi e Biblioteca, ms. XXVIII, fol. 80r; copy from the second quarter of the 9th century; the manuscript is digitized and available online for consultation here.
Previous Editions
Ludwig Konrad Bethmann and Georg Waitz (eds.), Pauli Historia Langobardorum, Monumenta Germaniae historica, Scriptores rerum Germanicarum in usum scholarum separatim editi 48 (Hannover 1878), p. 212.
FIM Edition
Diplomatic edition based on B.

At vero Romualda, quem aput Foroiuli premisimus Ducatum tenuisse, cum ab eadem civitate abesset, Ansfrit de castro Reunia Ducatum eius absque regis nutu pervasit.

Quo cumpertob, Romualdc in Histriam fugiit ac deinde navigio per Ravennam Ticinum ad Cunincpertum regem pervenit.

Ansfrit vero non contentus Ducatum Foroiulanensium regere, insuper contra Cunincpertum revellansd, Regnum eius invadere voluit. Sed conprehensus in Verona, ad regem deductus, evulsis oculis, in exilium trusus est.

Foroiuliano autem Ducatui post hec Ado, frater Rodoaldi, lociservatoris nomine per annum et menses septem gubernavit.

Apparato critico

asic: pro Rodoald. bsic: pro comperto. csic: pro Rodoald. dsic: pro rebellans.


But when Rodoald, indeed, who as we said before, held the duchy in Cividale, was absent from that city, Ansfrit from the fortress of Ragogna swept through his duchy without the consent of the king.

Rodoald, when he learned this, fled into Istria and thence came by ship through Ravenna to Pavia to King Cunipert.

Ansfrit indeed, not content to rule the dukedom of the Friulans, but rebelling against Cunipert besides, attempted to usurp his sovereignty. But he was seized in Verona and brought to the king, his eyes were torn out and he was cast into banishment.

After these things, Ado, the brother of Rodoald, governed the Duchy of Friuli a year and seven months as a deputy.

[translation taken from Paul the Deacon, History of the Lombards, trans. William Dudley Foulke, ed. Edward Peters (Philadelphia 2003; 1st ed. 1907), pp. 251-52, and slightly modified by the editor.]

Selected Bibliography
Harald Krahwinkler, Friaul im Frühmittelalter: Geschichte einer Region vom Ende des Fünften bis zum Ende des zehnten Jahrhunderts (Vienna 1992), pp. 53-55.
Editor's Notes

The last mention of Istria in Paul the Deacon's Historia Langobardorum. Roughly half a century later, in 751, the Lombards would invade and briefly conquer Istria (at least according to this primary source).

In chap. 45 of book 6, Paul the Deacon mentions a battle fought between Duke Pemmo of Friuli and "an immense multitude of Slavs" in "a place which is called Lauriana" (orig. "[R]epente ei [Pemmo Foroiulianis] nuntius venit, inmensam Sclavorum multitudinem in locum qui Lauriana dicitur adventasse."), traditionally dated to c. 720. Although it seems inviting to interpret this Lauriana as Lovran, a town on the eastern shore of the Istrian peninsula mentioned, among others, by the Anonymous of Ravenna (see the source here), such an interpretation would posit Istria already at this point in time as at least a de facto if not de iure under the control of the Lombards. As this seems highly unlikely, the Lauriana mentioned by Paul the Deacon should be sought, as Pio Paschini and Bernardo Benussi argued, in Friuli (possibly Lavariano south of Udine). Cf. Krahwinkler's account cited above.

How to Cite
First citation: Josip Banic (ed.), Fontes Istrie medievalis, vol. 1: A seculo VI usque ad 803, doc. 695_HL, (last access: date).
Subsequent citations: FIM, 1: doc. 695_HL.
Image Source and Info

The image of the manuscript comes from the project I libri dei patriarchi, available freely online on the following link:

The editor has subsequently marked the image with a red vertical line simply to denote the part of the manuscript that is hereby edited.

All images remain under the copyright of their respective institutions.