Reges et imperatores Sacri Imperii Romani

  • Otto I, rex Romanorum (936-973), imperator Imperii Romanorum (962-973)
  • Otto II, rex Romanorum (961-983), imperator Imperii Romanorum (967-983)
  • Otto III, rex Romanorum (983-1002), imperator Imperii Romanorum (996-1002)
  • Henricus II, rex Romanorum (1002-1024), imperator Imperii Romanorum (1014-1024)
  • Conradus II, rex Romanorum (1024-1039), imperator Imperii Romanorum (1027-1039)
  • Henricus III, rex Romanorum (1028-1056), imperator Imperii Romanorum (1046-1056)
  • Henricus IV, rex Romanorum (1054-1105), imperator Imperii Romanorum (1084-1105)
  • Henricus V, rex Romanorum (1099-1125), imperator Imperii Romanorum (1111-1125)
  • Lothar, rex Romanorum (1125-1137), imperator Imperii Romanorum (1133-1137)
  • Conradus III, rex Romanorum (1138-1152)
  • Fridericus I, rex Romanorum (1152-1190), imperator Imperii Romanorum (1155-1190)
  • Henricus VI, rex Romanorum (1169-1197), imperator Imperii Romanorum (1191-1197)
  • Otto IV, rex Romanorum (1198-1215), imperator Imperii Romanorum (1209-1215)
  • Fridericus II, rex Romanorum (1212-1250), imperator Imperii Romanorum (1220-1250)

776_HPC

Regestum

Pope Adrian I writes to Charlemagne, the King of the Franks and the Lombards, beseeching him to direct Duke Marcarius of Friuli to help reinstate the Istrian bishop Maurice – whose eyes have been gouged out by “the most abominable Greeks” – to his bishopric.

Date
Between 776 and 780
Place

788_CBI

Regestum

Narrative sources on the events of 788 that resulted, among a variety of other things, with Istria being incorporated into the Frankish kingdom.

Date
788

791_CRF

Regestum

King Charlemagne writes to his wife Fastrada, informing her, among other things, of their military successes against the Avars, including the achievements of his “duke of Istria”. This is the first documented mention of a Carolingian official in Istria, officially marking the beginning of a new era of the peninsula’s history.

Date
791 (after September)

792_CM1

Regestum

King Charlemagne bestows to the Church of Aquileia the right to canonical election of their patriarchs (that nonetheless requires royal confirmation) and exempts it from public taxes such as the tithes, the grazing fees for livestock sent to graze in Istria, and war taxes (lodgings and provisions for the army) unless the royal military is forced to pass through Friuli and the Treviso region.

Date
4th of August, 792
Place

803_CMA

Regestum

Emperor Charlemagne subordinates six episcopal sees to the Church of Aquileia, badly damaged by the incursions of the pagans; late-10th-century forgery.

Date
4th of August, 803
Place

803_CG1

Regestum

Emperor Charlemagne bestows immunities upon the Church of Grado due to the special services and merits of its incumbent Patriarch Fortunatus II.

Date
13th of August, 803
Place

803_CG2

Regestum

Emperor Charlemagne exempts the four ships of Fortunatus II, "the patriarch of the Venetians and Istrians," from all the tolls.

Date
Undated; traditionally dated to the 17th of August, 803
Place

814_LPF

Regestum

Emperor Louis the Pious promises to Patriarch Fortunatus II and to all the Istrians that their right to elect their own patriarchs, bishops, abbots, tribunes, and other officials will be respected and that the rulings of the judicial assembly (placitum) held by Rižana will be upheld.

Date
Between 814 and 821; customarily dated to 815.

826_LPE

Regestum

Emperor Louis the Pious and his son Lothair write to Venerio, the patriarch of Grado, confirming the possessions of his Church, including the Patriarchate's jurisdictions in Istria.

Date
826

828_ARF

Regestum

Emperor Louis the Pious deposes several marcher officials – including Baldric, the duke of Friuli – from their offices due to their military impotence. As a result of Baldric’s deposition, the March of Friuli – which included Istria – is divided into four counties governed by their respective counts.

Date
February of 828
Place

832_LPA

Regestum

Emperor Lothair I confirms the immunities enjoyed by the Church of Aquileia and its right to canonically elect their patriarchs.

Date
30th of November, 832
Place

840_PL

Regestum

The first pact between the Western Roman Empire, represented by Emperor Lothair I, and the Duchy of Venice, represented by Doge Pietro Tradonico, sanctioning mutual aid in campaigns against the Slavs and defining the rights over the use of land as well as the modalities of justice administration. This is the first "international" treaty in which Venice partook as an autonomous polity, independent of the Byzantine Empire.

Date
23rd of February, 840
Place

844_CA

Regestum

A poem composed in response to the Synod of Mantua (6th of June, 827), arguing that Aquileia, the old metropolitan see of the ecclesiastical province Venetia et Histria, was so thoroughly destroyed by barbarians (Attila, the Avars, Lombards and Goths) that it was never rebuilt; thus, the metropolitan see transferred to "the Venetians" and Aquileia was demoted to a status of a mere parish.

Date
c. 850 (between 844 and 855)

852_LMD

Regestum

Emperor Louis II assumes under his protection the monastery of St. Michael in Diliano and its abbot Felmo, bestowing upon the monastery immunities and the right of free election of its abbots.

Date
17th of November, 852
Place

855_LPA

Regestum

Emperor Louis II confirms the charter of Lothair I to the Patriarchate of Aquileia regarding the dispute with the Patriarchate of Grado that was settled at the Synod of Mantua in 827: the patriarchs of Aquileia are to enjoy the metropolitan jurisdiction over all the Istrian bishoprics.

Date
30th of October, 855
Place

857_LMD

Regestum

Emperor Louis II confirms to St. Michael's monastery in Diliano and abbot Felmo the right to have two lay advocates - the brothers Petronasius and Talasius - to defend their rights.

Date
3rd of April, 857
Place

952_OMA

Regestum

After having invaded and conquered Italy, King Otto I convokes a diet in Augsburg whereby he bestowed upon the defeated Berengar II and his son Adalbert the Kingdom of Italy, albeit somewhat reduced: the marches of Verona and Aquileia were ripped off from Italy and appended to the Duchy of Bavaria, governed by Otto's brother Henry. Since Istria formed part of the "March of Aquileia" (i. e. Friuli), this event marks the beginning of a new chapter of Istrian history.

Date
August of 952
Place

972_OT

Regestum

Emperor Otto II gifts large estates on both sides of the Alps, including the Province of Istria, to his wife Theophanu as a dowry.

Date
14th of April, 972
Place

973_MC

Regestum

Otto II, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, donates properties in the March of Carniola to Abraham, the bishop of Freising.

Date
30th of June, 973
Place

983_OP

Regestum

Emperor Otto II confirms the jurisdictions of the bishops of Poreč and grants them immunities.

Date
2nd of June or 7th of June, 983
Place

996_OA

Regestum

Emperor Otto III confirms the donation of six bishoprics to the Patriarchate of Aquileia issued by Charlemagne and donates three abbeys to the same Church.

Date
26th of June, 996
Place