814_LPF

Era
Vol. 2: A 804 usque ad 1077
Date
Between 814 and 821; customarily dated to 815.
Regestum

Emperor Louis the Pious informs Patriarch Fortunatus II of Grado and the faithful of the province of Istria that, at their request, he confirms the free election of the patriarch, bishops, abbots, tribunes and other authorities, that in the event of breach of faith, quarrels and oppression of the poor, the legal judgment awaits them and that violators of the Placitum of Rižana (doc. 804_PR) will be subject to the prescribed penance.

Source
The original is lost; the text survives in the following manuscript tradition:
T = Venice, Archivio di Stato di Venezia, Pacta e aggregati, Codex Trevisaneus, fol. 46r; a late-15th-/early 16th-century simple copy, based on a copy from the nowadays lost Codex Egnatii, presumably from the 13th/14th century. The copy has the signature Eg(natii) carta 101, Dand(ulo) 73 and the date 815 added in the upper right corner.
All the other copies, including those copied by Tommaso Diplovataccio in the 16th century (Biblioteca Marciana di Venezia, ms. Lat. XIV 74 (= 4529), fol. 216v–217r, and ms. Lat. XIV 77 (= 2991), fol. 98v), stem either from T or from one of its derivatives.
Previous Editions
Roberto Cessi (ed.), Documenti relativi alla storia di Venezia anteriori al mille, vol. 1: Secoli V–IX (Padua 1940), doc. 43, pp. 70–71.
Theo Kölzer (ed), Die Urkunden Ludwigs des Frommen / Hludowici Pii diplomata, Monumenta Germaniae historica, Diplomata Karolinorum 2, 3 vols., vol. 1 (Wiesbaden 2016), doc. 82, pp. 200-202.
FIM Edition
Diplomatic edition based on T with Kölzer's emendations reported in the critical apparatus.
Transcription

In nomine domini Dei et salvatoris nostri Iesu Christi.

Hludovicus divina ordinante providentia imperator augustus, Fortunato venerabili patriarchę idemquea omnibus episcopis, abbatibus, tribunis seu reliquis fedelibusb nostris Istrię provinciae commorantibus a maiori usque ad minorem.

Sicut enim a primordio vobis concessimus, ita et denuo per sacram auctoritatem nostram confirmare decrevimus vestris iustis petitionibus annuentes, videlicet ut unicuique secundum ordinem, honorem dignitatis et legem antiquam [...]c, ut, si aliquis vestrum ex hac luce dicesserit, inter vos rectorem et gubernatorem atque patriarcham, episcopos, abbates seu tribunos et reliquos ordines licentiam habeatis eligendi, ea scilicet ratione, ut unanimes et concordes esse debeatis pacem ad invicem et iustitiam consentientes et conservantes, et qui potentiores fuerint, minores sub omni custodia habeant, nulla tributa illicita superponere presumant, sed omnes generaliter in Dei voluntate fideliter nobis et filiis nostris deservire studeatis.

Patriarcha, episcopi, abbates et reliqui sacerdotes canonice viventes non praesumant [...]c, et si, quod absitd, diabolo suadente, inter vos rixas et contentiones aut oppressiones pauperum feceritis et mandatum nostrum transgressi fueritis aut fidelitatem nobis repromissam suise in tempore non conservaveritis, sciatis pro certo vestram esse culpam et, si non emendaveritis, legalem et capitalem super vos manere sententiam.

Et quicumque iudicatum quod legati domini et genitoris nostri, Iso presbiter et Cadola atque Aio comites, per iussoinem eiusdem domini et genitoris nostri inter vos constituerunt et primates populi vestri centum et septuaginta duo per sacramentum confirmaverunt,1 ut si aliqua contumacia violaverit, noverit se pena, que in ipso iudicatu conscripta est, esse multandum, id est novem libras auri ad pallatiumf nostrum debeat solvere.

Et ut haec auctoritas nostris futurisque temporibus, Deo protegente, firmior habeatur et per futura tempora melius conservetur, more nostro subter [eam subter]g scribere et de bulla nostra iussimus sigillari.

[...]h

Critical apparatus

asic T: pro itemque, sicut em. Kölzer.  bsic T.  ccerte hic pars litterae deficit, quamquam nullum spatium vacuum in exemplario T relictum est.  d) quod absit] inter parentheses T.  esic T: pro suo, sicut em. Kölzer.  fsic T.  gom. T; em. iuxta formularium imperatoris Kölzer.  htotum eschatocollum om. T.


1) Reference to doc. 804_PR.

Medieval Recollections

“Suplicante Fortunato patriarcha, Ludovicus Ystriensi populo concessit, ut rectores, gubernatores, episcopos, abbates seu tribunos et reliquos ordines licenciam habeant eligendi, et decretum per legatos Karoli constitutum renovavit.” – Andrea Dandolo, Chronica per extensum descripta, ed. Ester Pastorello, RIS, ser. 2, 12/1 (Bologna 1958), p. 142.

Selected Bibliography
Vittorio Cavallari, “La costituzione tribunizia istriana,” Rivista di storia del diritto italiano 23 (1950): p. 63
Stefan Esders, “ Regionale Selbstbehauptung zwischen Byzanz und dem Frankenreich: Die inquisitio der Rechtsgewohnheiten Istriens durch die Sendboten Karls des Großen und Pippins von Italien,” in Eid und Wahrheitssuche: Studien zu rechtlichen Befragungspraktiken in Mittelalter und früher Neuzeit, ed. Stefan Esders and Thomas Scharff, (Frankfurt am Main 1999), pp. 109–111.
Harald Krahwinkler (ed.), ...in loco qui dicitur Riziano... : Zbor v Rižani pri Kopru leta 804 / Die Versammlung in Rižana/Risano bei Koper/Capodistria im Jahre 804 (Koper 2004), p. 139.
Harald Krahwinkler, “Patriarch Fortunatus of Grado and the Placitum of Riziano”, Acta Histriae, vol. 13/1 (2005): p. 71.
Editor's Notes

The document, sitting somewhere between a letter and a charter, can only be dated relatively, with the terminus ante quem being Patriarch Fortunatus’ flight to Byzantium in 821. The document is customarily dated 815, following Andrea Dandolo, quoted above under Medieval Recollections.

Although there have been doubts expressed regarding the document’s authenticity (see Esders’ account cited above), the current consensus is that the surviving text is contaminated due to its manuscript transmissions, but that the crux of the document is indeed authentic.

How to Cite
First citation: Josip Banić (ed.), Fontes Istrie medievalis, vol. 2: A 804 usque ad 1077, doc. 814_LPF, fontesistrie.eu/814_LPF (last access: date).
Subsequent citations: FIM, 2: doc. 814_LPF.
Facsimile
Image Source and Info

The publication of the facsimile of T (Venice, Archivio di Stato di Venezia, Venice, Archivio di Stato di Venezia, Pacta e aggregati, Codex Trevisaneus, fol. 46r) is granted free of charge by Archivio di Stato di Venezia by way of the “simplified procedure” of publishing archival facsimiles (La circolare della Direzione generale archivi n. 39 del 29 settembre 2017: procedura semplificata: pubblicazioni online che perseguano finalità scientifiche o pedagogiche, non beneficino di inserzioni pubblicitarie o commerciali e non siano soggette ad accesso a pagamento).

The digital facsimile remains under the exclusive copyright of Archivio di Stato di Venezia.