Era
Vol. 1: A seculo VI usque ad 803
Date
4th of August, 792
Place
Regestum

King Charlemagne bestows to the Church of Aquileia the right to canonical election of their patriarchs (that nonetheless requires royal confirmation) and exempts it from public taxes such as the tithes, the grazing fees for livestock sent to graze in Istria, and war taxes (lodgings and provisions for the army) unless the royal military is forced to pass through Friuli and the Treviso region.

Source
The original is lost; the document survives in several manuscript traditions:
B = Cividale, Biblioteca civica, Fondo D'Orlandi, Appendice d'altri documenti e memorie della città, b. 24, Pergamene e documenti dal 777 al 1399, serie 2°, n. 2; 14th-century copy.
C = Venice, Archivio di Stato di Venezia, Consultori in iure, b. 366/2, fol. 2r; 15th-century copy.
D = Udine, Biblioteca civica “Vincenzo Joppi”, ms. 935: Documenti friulani storici, fol. 3r–v; 18th/19th-century copy.
E = Udine, Biblioteca civica “Vincenzo Joppi”, Collezione Pirona, copy from 5th of October, 1732 (of a copy from 15th of February, 1486), not (yet) discovered and consulted by the editor, but used in the MGH edition.
Previous Editions
Engelbert Mühlbacher (ed.), Pippini, Carlomanni, Caroli Magni diplomata / Die Urkunden Pippins, Karlmanns und Karls des Grossen, Monumenta Germaniae historica, Diplomatum Karolinorum tomus 1 / Die Urkunden der Karolinger 1 (Hannover 1906), doc. 174, pp. 233–34.
FIM Edition
Diplomatic edition based on B with different readings from C, D, and MGH reconstructive edition reported in the critical apparatus.
Transcription

Karolusa gratia Deyb rex Franchorumc et Langobardorum ac patricius Romanorum.

Si peticionibus sacerdotum [et]d servorum Dey, in quo nostris auribus fuerunte prolatef, libenter obtemperamus etg eas in Dey nomine ad effectum perducimush, regiam consuetudinem exercemus et hoc nobis ad mercedis augmentum seu [stabilitatem Regni nostrii]j pertinere confidimus.

Igitur notum sit omnibus fidelibus nostris p[resentibus scilicet et]k futuris qualiter vir venerabilis Paulinus, sancte Aquilegensisl ecclesie patriarcha, que est in honore sancte Dey genitiricis semperque virginis Marie vel sancti Petri, principis apostolorum, sive sancti Marci constructa, clementiam Regni nostri petiit ut, quando quidem divina vocatione ipse de hac luce ad Dominum migraverit, qualem meliorem et digniorem ipsa sancta congregatio que ibidem sub sancto ordine vitam degere videnturm infra se nobis filioque nostron Pipinoo regi et omni genti nostre per omnia fidelem aptumque et congruum voluerintp ex permissaq indulgentia nostra, salva principali potestate nostra, sicut et in ceteris ecclesiis secundum canonicam auctoritatemr licentiam haberents super se eligendi pastorem.
Et insuper postulavit serenitati nostre ut homines servientesque antedicte ecclesie ubi et ubi commanentes nullam decimam nec de annona aut de peculio ullo umquamt tempore in publico solvere debeant neque de peculio proprio ecclesiastico quod partibus Histriensisu in pascuis miserint ullumv debeant transolverew herbaticum.

⟨Cuius venerabilem peticionem noluimus denegare tribus ex causis: una videlicet ut ipsis servis Dey qui ibidem Deo famularex videntur pro nobis uxorequey, filiis et filiabus nostris et populo nobis a Deo commisso iugiter Domini misericordiam melius implorare delectet; alia ut in divinis litteris et doctrinis spiritualibus ampliorem certamen mittere procurent; terciamz eius meritis compellentibus ita prestitisse et in omnibus concessisse cognoscite.⟩

Propterea [per]aa presentem auctoritatem nostram decernimus acbb iubemus quod perpetualiter mensurum esse volumus ut, sicut supra memoravimus, circha eundem sanctum locum ex permissacc indulgentia nostra perhenniter maneat inconvulsum.

Et specialiter concessimus in elimosinadd nostra memorato viro venerabili ut superee servientes iam fate ecclesie mansionaticos vel foderum nullus audeat prindereff aut exactare ullo umquam tempore, excepto si veneritgg quod nos ipsi aut dilectus filius noster Pipinus vel regale residuumhh propter impedimenta inimicorum partibus Foroiulensisii autjj in fine Tarvisiani advenerint; tunc propter necessitatis causam, sikk contigeritll, mansiones homines nostri ibidem accipiant; ⟨in reliquo vero, si in Verona et Vincentia atque in longioribus finibus resederint, ut supra fati sumus, omni tempore promm mercedis nostre augmentonn fiat indultum atque concessum.⟩

Et ut hec auctoritas firmior habeatur et diuturnis temporibus melius conservetur, manu propria subter firmavimus et de anulooo nostro sigillari iussimus.

Factapp pridie nonas augusti anno XXIIIIqq et nono decimo regni nostri.

Actum Reganesburgrr, palatio publico.

In Dey nomine feliciter, amen.ss

Critical apparatus

a) Carolus D. bsic B et saepe sic; Dei CD et ed. Mühlbacher. csic B et saepe litteram h sic add. (circha, perhenniter); Francorum CD et ed. Mühlbacher. dom. B. esic B: pro fuerint sicut CD et ed. Mühlbacher. fundique -e loco -ae BC; undique loco -ae D; undique -ae refecit ed. Mühlbacher. gom. C. h) producimus D. i) Regni nostri] regi nostrę D. j) stabilitatem–nostri] lac. B. k) presentibus—et] lac. B. lsic BD; Aquilegiensis C; Aquileiensis ed. Mühlbacher. msic BCD: pro videbitur, sicut ed. Mühlbacher. n) filioque nostro] nostro filio C. osic BD et undique sic; Pippino ed. Mühlbacher et undique sic. psic BCD: pro voluerit, sicut ed. Mühlbacher. q) premissa CD. r) authoritatem D et undique sic. ssic BC: pro habeant, sicut ed. Mühlbacher; habent D. t) unquam D et undique sic. u) sic B; Histriensibus C et ed. Mühlbacher; Istriensis D. v) ullam C. wsic BCD: pro persolvere, sicut ed. Mühlbacher. x) Deo famulare] sic BD; Domino famulare C; Deo famulari ed. Mühlbacher. yseq. ac add. Mühlbacher. zsic BCD: pro tertia, sicut ed. Mühlbacher. aaom. BCD; secundum Mühlbacher, hoc legitur in E. bb) et D. cc) ex permissa] et pręmissa D. dd) elemosina D. ee) supra CD. ffsic BC: pro prendere, sicut ed. Mühlbacher. ggsic BCD: pro evenerit, sicut ed. Mühlbacher. hhsic BD: pro presidium, sicut C et ed. Mühlbacher. iisic B; Foroiuliensis CD; Foroiuliensibus ed. Mühlbacher, sicut in E legitur. jj) ut D. kkseq. contingerit canc. B. ll) contingerit C. mm) per D. nn) augmentum C. oo) annulo D. ppsic BCD: pro Data; Acta em. Mühlbacher. qq) 24 D. rr) Regomesburg D. ssseq. Annis XXIIII regni Francorum, annis XIX regni Langobardorum > ab anno Domini 792. Omissis. add. D.

Medieval Recollections

Cf. Charlemagne's charter bestowing immunity to the Church of Aquileia, also from the 4th of August, 792 (edited here);

Confirmation charter issued by Emperor Lothair I to Patriarch Maxentius on the 30th of November, 832 (to be edited here);

Confirmation charter issued by King Karlmann to Patriarch Valpert on the 8th of May, 879 (to be edited here).

Selected Bibliography
Pio Paschini, San Paolino patriarca (†802) e la chiesa Aquileiese: Alla fine del secolo VIII (Udine 1906), pp. 85–87.
Carlo Guido Mor, “Civitas Austriäe: Postille al diploma carolino per il patriarca Paolino (797),” Memorie storiche forogiuliesi 56 (1976): pp. 72–80 (with an erroneous dating of the charter to 6th of August, 797, instead of correctly 4th of August, 792).
Paolo Cammarosano, “L'alto medioevo: Verso la formazione regionale,” in Storia della società friulana: Il medioevo, ed. Paolo Cammarosano (Udine 1988), pp. 50–53.
Carlrichard Brühl, “Diplomatische Miszellen zur Geschichte des 9. und 10. Jahrhunderts,” in: Carlrichard Brühl, Aus Mittelalter und Diplomatik: Gesammelte Aufsätze, vol. 2: Studien zur Diplomatik (Hildesheim-München-Zürich 1989), pp. 794–800.
Harald Krahwinkler, Friaul im Frühmittelalter: Geschichte einer Region vom Ende des Fünften bis zum Ende des zehnten Jahrhunderts (Vienna 1992) p. 159 and fn. 235 on pp. 159–60 .
Editor's Notes

The charter marks the official beginnings of royal patronage over the Church of Aquileia, a connection that will ultimately lead to the birth of the ecclesiastical principality of the Patriarchate of Aquileia during the Salian-era Holy Roman Empire. 

The charter is also notable for being the first public document mentioning fodrum - royal/imperial tax meant for the upkeep of the armies - in the territories of Regnum Italicum before the 10th century.

The document survives only in copies from much later periods, the oldest of which is the mid-14th-century one kept in Cividale, the ms. here designated as B. Even though the diplomatic analysis of the charter's contents does not point to any striking anomalies which would seriously question the document's authenticity, the part where Charlemagne expounds three reasons as to why he is privileging the Church of Aquileia (Cuius venerabilem peticionemomnibus concessisse cognoscite) constitutes a stylistic unicum in the practices of Charlemagne's chancery.

Moreover, the charter lacks inscriptio and a large part of the eschatocol which features only the datatio.

More importantly, the exemptions that end up being granted (ut super servientesindultum atque concessum) make no reference to the previous petitio; instead, the grant seems to belong to the charter bestowing immunities.

Finally, the two charters confirming this document, issued by Emperor Lothair I in 832 and Karlmann in 879, make no mention of the situation regarding the military taxes collected in Verona and Vicenza (in reliquo veroindultum atque concessum).

Due to all of this, and especially when compared to Charlemange's charter bestowing immunity to the same Church, purportedly issued on the very same day, Carlrichard Brühl (cited above) concludes that the charter is a forgery (actum spurium) made on the basis of an authentic charter issued by Charlemagne, most probably on the 4th of August of 792, which bestowed to the Patriarchate of Aquileia all the following: the canonical election of their patriarchs, immunities, exemptions from tithes and grazing taxes in Istria.

Thus, the charters hereby edited as 792_CM1 (this one) and 792_CM2 are both forgeries, drawn up in the early 11th century in the patriarchal chancellery, but both based on an authentic charter. The fact that both Lothair I and Karlmann confirm a single charter further corroborates this interpretation.

The original charter can tentatively be reconstructed from 792_CM1 and 792_CM2, as proposed by Brühl. It would feature the following elements:

  • intitulatio from CM1;
  • inscriptio from CM2;
  • arenga from CM2, even though the arenga from CM1 also fits the practices of Charlemagne's chancery;
  • promulgatio from CM1;
  • narratio is authentic in both documents and one is to suppose that the original document featured three distinct petitiones: for the canonical election of the patriarchs (CM_1), immunities (CM_2), and the exemption from tithes, military taxes (with specifically defined restrictions), and grazing tithes in Istria (CM_1).
  • dispositio would follow CM_2 with the addition of lines Et specialiter concessimusibidem accipiant from CM_1;
  • the entire eschatocol from CM_2.

[click here to view the tentative reconstruction of the original charter]

Karolus gratia Dei rex Francorum et Longobardorum ac patricius Romanorum omnibus episcopis, abbatibus, ducibus, comitibus, gastaldeis, domesticis, vicariis, centenariis seu reliquis fidelibus nostris presentibus et futuris.
Maximum Regni nostri in hoc augere credimus munimentum, si petitionibus sacerdotum vel servorum Dei, in quo nostris auribus fuerint prolate, libenti animo obtemperamus et eas in Dei nomine ad effectum perducimus.
Igitur notum sit omnibus fidelibus nostris presentibus scilicet et futuris qualiter vir venerabilis Paulinus, sanctae Aquileiensis aecclesiae patriarcha, quae est in honore sanctae Dei genitiricis semperque virginis Marie vel sancti Petri, principis apostolorum, sive sancti Marci constructa, clementiam Regni nostri petiit ut, quando quidem divina vocatione ipse de hac luce ad Dominum migraverit, qualem meliorem et digniorem ipsa sancta congregatio, quae ibidem sub sancto ordine vitam degere videbitur, infra se nobis filioque nostro Pippino regi et omni genti nostrae per omnia fidelem aptumque et congruum voluerit ex permissa indulgentia nostra, salva principali potestate nostra, sicut et in ceteris aecclesiis secundum canonicam auctoritatem licentiam habeant super se eligendi pastorem; et serenitati nostrae postulavit, ut sub integra emunitate confirmationem de omnibus rebus vel facultatibus ipsius aecclesiae seu monasteria virorum ac puellarum et sinodochia vel parochias ubicumque in nostro Regno Deo propitio consistentes ad ipsam scilicet sanctam Dei aecclesiam pertinentes seu reliquas possessiones, quascumque ex dono regum sive ducum seu reliquorum Deo timentium bonorum hominum inibi conlatas esse noscuntur et presenti tempore ipsa aecclesia Dei possidere videtur vel quod inantea divina pietas ibidem augmentare voluerit, ex nostra indulgentia plenissima deliberatione circa ipsum sanctum locum cedere et confirmare deberemus, ita ut in villas vel curtes seu quibuslibet locis vel rebus ad ipsum sanctum locum pertinentibus vel aspicientibus nullus iudex publicus ad causas audiendum nec freta undique exigendum nec mansiones aut paratas faciendum nec homines vel servientes ipsius aecclesiae distringendum nec ullas redibutiones requirendum quoque tempore ingredere aut exactare deberet; et insuper postulavit serenitati nostrae ut homines servientesque antedictae aecclesiae ubi et ubi commanentes nullam decimam nec de annona aut de peculio ullo umquam tempore in publico solvere debeant neque de peculio proprio ecclesiastico quod partibus Histriensibus in pascuis miserint ullum debeant persolvere herbaticum.
Propterea per presentem auctoritatem nostram decernimus ac iubemus ut nullus quislibet de vobis aut iunioribus vel successoribus vestris amodo et deinceps, ut diximus, in villas vel curtes seu quibuslibet locis seu rebus vel monasteria virorum ac puellarum et senodochia vel in quibuslibet locis aecclesias ad praefatum locum respicientes ad causas audiendum vel freta undique exigendum nec homines ipsarum aecclesiarum Dei distringendum nec mansiones aut paratas faciendum nec ullas redibutiones requirendum ullo umquam tempore ingredere aut exactare presumatis, sed sub emunitatis nomine valeat memoratus Paulinus patriarcha eiusque successores in omnibus locis et rebus ad se pertinentibus quieto ordine vivere ac resedere et pro nobis ac prole nostra seu etiam pro stabilitate Regni nostri Domini misericordiam iugiter implorare. Et specialiter concessimus in elimosina nostra memorato viro venerabili ut super servientes iam fatae aecclesiae mansionaticos vel foderum nullus audeat prendere aut exactare ullo umquam tempore, excepto si evenerit quod nos ipsi aut dilectus filius noster Pippinus vel regale presidium propter impedimenta inimicorum partibus Foroiulensibus aut in fine Tarvisiani advenerint; tunc propter necessitatis causam, si contigerit, mansiones homines nostri ibidem accipiant.
Et ut haec auctoritas firmior habeatur et diuturnis temporibus melius conservetur, manu propria subter firmavimus et de anulo nostro sigillari iussimus.
Signum (SM) Karoli gloriosissimi regis.
Iacob advicem Radoni recognovi.
Data pridie Nonas augustas anno XXIIII et XVIIII regni nostri.
Actum Reganesburg, palatio publico.
In Dei nomine feliciter, amen.

Even though the surviving charter is a spurium, the parts which obviously do not fit even the reconstructed original as advocated by Brühl are marked as interpolations, simply to clearly denote authentic from interpolated layers.

But why was the original charter from 792 divided into two forgeries in the first quarter of the 11th century? Brühl left this question unanswered. However, the interpolated parts of CM_2 show that there was a need to legitimize all the possessions of the Church of Aquileia, hence the detailed interpolated confirmatio possessionum (see the edition here). It can be conjectured that when the forger set out to compose the charter granting immunities which would feature the detailed confirmatio possessionum, he still wanted to preserve the documentary evidence for the set of privileges accorded by Charlemagne in the same charter to the same Church. Therefore, the original charter was broken into two: the grant of immunities become a single charter with an added confirmatio possessionum (792_CM2); the grant of all the other privileges became the charter hereby edited.

Notwithstanding the fact that the text of the surviving text of the document is forged, the original charter upon which the two forgeries were made does mark the beginnings of the rise of the Church of Aquileia within the political framework of the soon-to-become renascent Imperium Romanorum. The subsequent royal/imperial donations and confirmations of Aquileian prerogatives resulted from the continuation of the trend originally initiated by Charlemagne with this very charter.

How to Cite
First citation: Josip Banic (ed.), Fontes Istrie medievalis, vol. 1: A seculo VI usque ad 803, doc. 792_CM1, fontesistrie.eu/792_CM1 (last access: date).
Subsequent citations: FIM, 1: doc. 792_CM1.
Facsimile

The facsimile of B is to be published here pending the official approval of Biblioteca Civica di Cividale del Friuli, whose staff kindly and generously sent us the digital reproduction of the document completely free of charge.