Era
Vol. 1: A seculo VI usque ad 803
Date
698 or 699
Place
Regestum

Under Lombard King Cunipert, the Synod of Pavia takes place where the representatives of the schismatic clergy of the ecclesiastical province of Aquileia officially accept the decrees of the 5th Ecumenical Council (Constantinople II) and finally desist from their schism; narrative account from the contemporary "Poem on the Synod of Pavia" (Carmen or Rythmus de Synodo Ticiensi).

Source
The 7th-century original is lost; the poem survives in two slightly later copies:
B = Milan, Biblioteca Ambrosiana, ms. E 147 sup., fols. 57v–58v; 7th-century copy; this is considered the codex optimus; see more on the manuscript here.
C = Milan, Biblioteca Ambrosiana, ms. C 105 inf., fol. 121r–v; 7th- or 8th-century copy in an older, 6th century manuscript; copied by the same hand that copied the poem in ms. B; digitized and available online here.
Previous Editions
Ludwig Bethmann (ed.), “Carmen de synodo Ticiensi,” in Monumenta Germaniae historica, Scriptores rerum Langobardorum et Italicarum 1 (Hannover 1878), pp. 189-91.
Karl Strecker (ed.), Poetae Latini aevi Carolini, Monumenta Germaniae historica, Poetae Latini medii aevi 4/2.3 (Berlin 1881), n. 145, pp. 728–31.
FIM Edition
Diplomatic edition based on B with different readings from C reported in the critical apparatus.
Transcription
[1] Sublimesa ortus in finibus Europeb
Langibardorum regale prosapia
Rex Haribertusc pius et catholicus
Arrianorum abolevit heresemd
Et christianam fidem fecit crescere. (SC)
 
[2] Subolis item Bertharie in solium
Regni suffectus imitatus protinus
Exempla patris, ad fidem convertere
Iudaeosf fecit baptizandos, credere
Qui rennuerunt, gladium peremere. (SC)
 
[3] Tutor et rector, amator Ecclesiae
A fundamentis constructor coenubii,
Ubi et Christi conlocavit famolas,
Sua praefecit germana egregia,
Ipsas materno amore ut regeret. (SC)
 
[4] Tertius immo nepusg adque filius
Rex Cuningperctush sublimatus tempore
Moderno rector fortis et piissimus,
Devotus fidem christianam colere,
Ecclesiarum ditator et opifex. (SC)
 
[5] Elictus gente a Deo ut regeret
Langibardorumi, rebelles conpescuit,
Bello prostravit Alexo nequissimoj,1
Semidiruta nuncupata Motina
Urbek pristino decore restituit. (SC)
 
[6] Exorta scisma iam prisco de tempore
Ab aquilone parte, unde pandere
Malum in terra universum propheta
Vaticinandum Isaias cecenetl,
Ubi superbus thronum cadens elegit. (SC)
 
[7] Fontis labacro recepere similem,
Nobiscum simul trinitatem credere
Aquiligenses dissedentesn synodum
Quinta, qui totus concordat cum IIIIo,
Una tempnentesp rei facti omnium. (SC)
 
[8] Fides ut esset in tota Hesperia
Coadunata, advocari praecepitq
Aquiligensesr urbi, ubi resedet,
Ticino dicta ab amne, qui confluet,
Proprium gerens Papia vocabolum. (SC)
 
[9] Aulam ingressi ortodoxis pariter,
Adversus prabos coeperuntt contendere,
Libros legentes sancitos a patribus,
Pauli et Pyrri detegentes heresem,
Theodori, Hibaeu simulque Theodoriti.2 (SC)
 
[10] Ast se iam victos congnoscentes, ilico
Petunt a rege, ut iurent catholici
Melius quintam recepere synodumv,
Et se promittunt consensuros postea
Ac iuraturos credendumw recepere. (SC)
 
[11] Namque ovantes ingressi ecclesiax
Iureiurandum adfirmant concordiam
Adque uniti karitatis vincolumy,
Ostias simul offerentes Dominum,z 
Eucharistiam concordisaa participant. (SC)
 
[12] Nullus de tanto gaudio potuerat
Se temperare a fletu et lacrimis,
Catholicique sive de scismaticis,bb
omnibus tanta supplevit conpunctio,
Cernerent Christum ibi acsi patule. (SC)
 
[13] Utreque parti rex pius elegere
Cunincperct iubetcc legatos diregere
Sedem ad sanctam, ubi Christo presuledd
Data potestas nectere et solvere
Petro piscanti caeli archeclavioee. (SC)
 
[14] Ubi resedensff papa pius Sergius,
Suos qui iussit adesse episcopos,
Gaudens recepit Thomam Christi ministrum,
Theodoaldo simul legum peritissimum;
Aderant quoque Aquiligensesgg pariter. (SC)
 
[15] Sedenti pape ante ora omnium
Scedula datur continens praeterita,
Quae acta erant praedicto de scismate;hh
Quam vir excellens Dammianus  pontifex3
Pio direxit dictata effamine. (SC)
 
[16] Sergius papa regi est pollicitus
Sua a Deo ademptajj facinora;
Illud prophetae, ubi inquid, recoletkk:
‘Qui peccatore ab errore convertetll,
Sua a morte liberavit anima.’4 (SC)
 
[17] Merito iuste pastor apostolicus,
Digni quod erant, sectae pravaemm codices,
Quos antefati conscripserunt auctores,
Iussit conburi, ultra ne pulluerantnn
Pravorum mentes qui erant de scismate. (SC)
 
[18] Mihi ignosce, rex quaesu, piisime,
Tua qui iussa nequivi, ut condecet,
Pangere ore styloqueoo contexere,
Recte ut valent edissere medrici,
Scripsi per prosa ut oratiunculampp. (SC)
 
[19] Gloria regi regum in perpetuum
Canamus omnes, oremus et pariter,
Sua ut regem Cunincperctoqq dextera
Protecat Christus hic multa per tempora
Vitam aeternam deinceps et tribuat! (SC)
 
Critical apparatus

a) Sublimis C. b) Europae C. c) Aribertus C. d) heresim C. e) Bertharith C. f) Iudeos C. g) naepus C. h) Cunincbertus C. i) Langobardorum C. j) Alexo nequissimo] Alex iniquissimo C. k) Urbi C. l) cecenit C. m) labacro recepere simile] lavachrum recepere similem C. n) dissidentes C. osic BC; quarta ed. Bethman; quattuor ed. Strecker. p) temnentes C. q) praecipit C. r) Rex Cunincperctus C et sic ed. Strecker. s) orthodoxi C. t) prabos coeperunt] pravos ceperunt C. u) Ibae C. v) sinodum C. w) credendos C. x) ovantes ingressi ecclesia] obantes ingressi ecclesiam C. y) karitatis vincolum] caritatis vinculum C. z) Ostias — Dominum om. C. aa) concordes C. bb) Se temperare a fletu et lacrimis / Catholicique sive de scismaticis] pouterat catholici sive de scismaticis de temperare a fleto et lacrimis C. cc) iuvit C. dd) presole C. ee) arceclavio C. ff) resedet C. gg) Aquilienses C. hh) Quae — scismate om. C. ii) Damianus C. jj) ademta C. kk) recolit C. ll) convertit C. mm) sectae pravae] secte prave C. nn) polluerint C. oo) stiloque C. pp) oratiuncula C. qq) Cunincperto C.


1) Id est Alachis, dux Brixiae; Cf. Paulus Diaconus, Historia Langobardorum, lib. 5, capp. 34-41.
2) Paulus II patriarcha Constantinopolis et Pyyrus Contantopolitanus, advocati heresae monotheliticae; Theodorus, Hiba et Theodoritus, auctores trium capitulorum condemnatorum a Concilio Constantinopolitano Secundo (553) ex qua schisma trium capitulorum orta est.
3) Cf. Paulus Diaconus, Historia Langobardorum, lib. 6, cap. 4.
4) Vulg. Epp. Iac. 5:20: “Scire debet quoniam qui converti fecerit peccatorem ab errore viae suae salvabit animam eius a morte et operit multitudinem peccatorum.”

Medieval Recollections

"Huius temporibus [papae Sergii] Aquilegensis Ecclesiae archiepiscopus et synodus qui sub eo est, qui sanctum quintum universalem concilium utpote errantes suscipere diffidebant, eiusdem beatissimi papae spiritalibus montis atque doctrinis instructi conversi sunt, eundemque venerabilem concilium satisfacti susciperunt. Et qui prius sub erroris vitio tenebantur, doctrina apostolicae sedis inluminati, cum pace consonantes veritati ad propria relaxati sunt." - Liber pontificalis, cap. 86: Sergius, p. 15, ed. Duchesne, vol. 1 (Paris 1886), p. 376.

"A.M. 4569 [A.D. 708] Tiberius annos VII. Synodus Aquileiae facta ob impertitiam fidei, quintum universale Concilium suscipere diffidit, donec salutaribus beati papae Sergii monitis instructa et ipsa huic cum caeteris Christi Ecclesiis adnuere consentit." - Beda venerabilis, De tempore rationum, ed. Giles, vol. 6 (London 1843), p. 329.

"Hoc tempore sinodus Aquileiae facta ob imperitiam fidei quintum universalem concilium suscipere diffidit, donec salutaribus beati papae Sergii monitis instructa et ipsa huic cum ceteris Christi Ecclesiis annuere consentit." - Paulus Diaconus, Historia Langobardorum, lib. 6, cap. 14, ed. Bethmann–Waitz (Hannover 1878), p. 217.

Selected Bibliography
Wilhelm Mayer, "Die Spaltung des Patriarchats Aquileia," Abhandlungen der königlichen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen: Philologisch-historische Klasse, Neue Folge, 2/6 (1898): pp. 5–9.
Giuseppe Cuscito, Cristianesimo antica ad Aquileia e in Istria, Fonti e studi per la storia della Venezia Giulia, serie seconda: Studi 3 (Trieste 1977), pp. 310–12.
Harald Krahwinkler, Friaul im Frühmittelalter: Geschichte einer Region vom Ende des Fünften bis zum Ende des zehnten Jahrhunderts (Vienna 1992) p. 79.
Rajko Bratož, Med Italijo in Ilirikom: Slovenski prostor in njegovo sosedstvo v pozni antiki (Ljubljana 2014), p. 567.
Rocco Ronzani, "Carmen de synodo Ticinensi," in Encyclopedia of Ancient Christianity, vol. 1, ed. Angelo Di Berardino (Downers Grove, IL 2014), pp. 429-30.
Editor's Notes

The Synod of Pavia finally ended the centuries-long Schism of Three Chapters, a heresy often dubbed "the Istrian schism" because it was the clergy of the ecclesiastical province of Aquileia, of which Istria formed an important part of, that persevered in this heresy the longest. On the outbreak of this schism, see this document.

Besides this laudatory poem to the deeds of Lombard King Cunipert, customarily attributed to an otherwise unknown Stephanus magister, the synod is only recorded by the Liber pontificalis, Bede the Venerable in his On the Reckoning of Time, and the History of the Lombards by Paul the Deacon (taken verbatim from Bede's narrative); no official acts of the synod survive.

How to Cite
First citation: Josip Banic (ed.), Fontes Istrie medievalis, vol. 1: A seculo VI usque ad 803, doc. 698_SP, fontesistrie.eu/698_SP (last access: date).
Subsequent citations: FIM, 1: doc. 698_SP.
Facsimile
Image Source and Info

The facsimile is of ms. C, as this is the digitized codex freely available on the official web pages of Biblioteca Ambrosiana of Milan.

The editor has inserted a red arrow on the first folio simply to denote the part of the manuscript hereby edited.

All the images remain under the copyright of Veneranda Biblioteca Ambrosiana.