Era
Vol. 1: A seculo VI usque ad 803
Date
3rd of November, 579 (purportedly) or sometime between 572 and 577 (more probably)
Place
Regestum

The acts of the synod of Grado, heavily interpolated by later falsifications, by which the bishops of the ecclesiastical province of Aquileia remain faithful to the Catholic creed as decreed by the Ecumenical Councils of Chalcedon (451), Ephesus (431), Constantinople I (381) and Nicaea (325), refusing to denounce the Three Chapters condemned by the Second Ecumenical Council of Constantinople (552).

Source
The original acts of the synod are lost with only contaminated copies from much later periods existing to this day. The oldest in extenso copies exist in two manuscript traditions: the Venetian chronicle of Andrea Dandolo (copies from mid-14th century onwards) and the "official" Venetian copy registered in the 15th century in the Liber pactorum I. The following edition is based on these manuscripts:
B = Venice, Archivio di Stato di Venezia, Pacta e aggregati, Pactorum liber I, fol. 54r (56 of new numbering) – 56r (58 of new numbering); 15th-century copy registered in a 14th-century codex (see Pozzi's study referenced below);
C = Venice, Biblioteca Marciana, ms. Zanetti lat. 400 (=2028), fols. 40r–42v; 14th-century copy, inserted in Andrea Dandolo’s Chronicle of Venice (the so-called Chronica per extensum descripta of which this is the codex optimus).
Previous Editions
Roberto Cessi (ed.), Documenti relativi alla storia di Venezia anteriori al mille, vol. 1: Secoli V-IX, Testi e documenti di storia e di letteratura latina medioevale 1 (Padua 1940), doc. 6, pp. 7-13.
FIM Edition
Diplomatic edition based on B with (substantially) different readings from C reported in the critical apparatus (differences such as ę/e, c/t, double consonants, etc. are not reported).
Transcription

In nomine domini Ihesu Christi, summi ęterni Dei nostri, imperante domino serenissimo Tiberio Constantino augusto, anno imperii eius quinto, eodem consule, sub die tercio nonarum novembrium, indictione XIIIa.

Cum in civitate Gradensi Elyas, episcopus sanctę eiusdem novę Aquilegensis Ecclesię, una cum Martiano, Leoniano, Petro, Vindemio, Virgilioa, Iohanne, Clarissimo, Patricio et reliquis episcopis etb sacerdotibus quorum nomina subscriptiones proprię manifestant in concilium convenissentc et in nova basilica sanctę venerabilis martiris Euphomię consedissent, sedentibus quoque presbiteris plurimis astantibus, diaconibus, propositis ind medio sacrosanctis evangeliis, Elyas, primę sedis episcopus, dixit:

“Ineffabilia sunt opera Domini nostri Ihesu Christi, quibus misericordi benignitate fragilitatem nostram frequentare dignatur, sanctissimi fratres. Nam inter angores quibus ecclesia Dominie depressa suspirat et gentium ferocissimas clades que miserę provincię nostrę reliquias quateręf ac devastare non cessant, fateor me non preter spem, sed, utg verius dixerim, supra spem meam ad hunch venerabilem cętumi vestram invitasse sanctissimam caritatem. Angebar enim, ne quid undecumque votis communibus obstitisset. Verum quia, ut prefatus sum, Ihesus Christus, verus Deus ac Dominus noster supra quem credidimus etj speravimus, prestitit ut vestrak nuncl presentia perfruamur, dignum ergo, carissimi fratres, mansuetudo nostra ducit ex consensu beatissimi apostolicę sedis pape Pelagii, cui iam ante communi nostramm intuitu descripsimus necessitatemn. Si vestrę placeto sanctitati hanc civitatem Gradensem nostram perpetuo confirmare metropolim novamque eam vocare Aquilegiam, quoniam, ut prelibavimus, intervenientibus malis nostris quotidie hostilep perpetimur flagellum. Iam pridem ab Athila, Hunnorum rege, Aquilegia civitas nostra funditus est destructa. Et postea, Gotthorum incessu et ceterorum barbarorum quassata, vix aspirat, sed etiamq nunc Longobardorum nefandę gentis flagella sustinere non valens, ex consensu beatissimi apostolicę sedis pape Pelagii, cui iam anter  nostrams descripsimus necessitudinem, si vestrę placett sanctitati hanc civitatem Gradensem nostram perpetuo confirmare metropolim novamque eam vocare Aquilegiensemu.”

Sancta synodus dixit:

“Quę vestra proposuit beatitudo omnes pari confirmamus assensu. Si vestrę sanctitati placetv, beatissimi pape Pelagii privilegium per hacw intentione ab ipso transmissum in medio recitandum deferatur.”

Laurentius presbiter, legatus apostolicę sedis, representavit privilegium quod suscipiens Epyphanius notarius in medio stans recitavitx:

“Pelagius, urbis Romę episcopus, Elyę, Aquilegiensi patriarchę.
Convenit apostolico moderaminiy pia religione pollentibus benivola compassione succurrerez et poscentiumaa animis inbb hac re devotione impartirecc consensumdd. Ex hoc enim, lucri potissimum a Conditore omniumee procul dubio promerebimur, si venerabilia loca, opportuno transmutata tempore, nostro fuerint studio ad meliorem sine dubio statum producta.
Igitur, quia petisti a nobis per missionisff tuę venerandę fraternitatisgg breviahh, consentientibus in eisii suffragraneisjj tibi episcopis, quatenus Gradense castrum totius Venetię fierikk et Istrię metropolim ad regendam scilicet Ecclesiam atque cum Dei timore dispensandam, emissa preceptione, concedere deberemus.
Quapropter vesti compatientes meroris necessitudini, immo et iamll rabiem furentium perpendentes Longobardorum, inclinati precibus vestris, per huius precepti seriem suprascriptum castrum Gradense totius Venetię fieri cum omnibus vestrę Ecclesię pertinentibus etiammm Istrię metropolim perpetuo confirmamus, statuentes quapropter apostolica autoritate sub interminatione futuri iudicii nulli licere nostrorum sucessorum vel alii cuilibet hęc quę a nobisnn decreta sunt pia in quoquam destruere aut convellere quęoo potius firma stabilitate inconvulsa manere diffinimus, atque sub anathematis vinculo perpetuis temporibus observanda.
Quam ob rem hortor te semperpp relevareqq oppressos, semperrr corripere inquietos ut zizaniass Dominicam non possit suffocare messem. Gratia Domini nostri Ihesu Christi et omnistt caritas Dei sit semper vobiscum.
Data XII kalendas maii, imperante Tiberio II Constantino augusto.”1

Quo perlecto, universi episcopi voce compari:

“Exaudi, Christe, Pelagio vitam: omnes uno consensu sanctissimi Pelagii preceptionem etuu vestram sequimur confirmantes sententiamvv, observandum enim ex apostolica autoritate decernimus hanc Gradensem civitatem vestramww metropolim perpetuis temporibus esse. Quicumque vero confirmationis hoc nostrę violare decretum presumpserit sit anathema.”

Sancta sinodus tercio affirmavit: “Fiat! Fiat! Fiat!”

Elyas primę sedis episcopus dixit:

“Si vestrę beatitudini placet, recitentur etiama' necessarię causę ad Ecclesię statum pertinentes, pro quibus vestram unianimenb' sanctitatem ad nos usque similiter fatigari rogitavimusc'. Sed, ut magis dispositionum nostrarum determinata iam sedis huius questione rite constet ordiri primordia, reciteturd', Deo gubernante nobis, primum fides sanctorum patrum, quę cuntise' actionibus nostris deinceps secuturisf' velut immobile fundamentum existat de fide catholica sanctorum patrum.”

Sancta synodus respondit: “Iustissimum est recitari quod utillime provenit audiri.”

Epyphanius notarius ex codice synodali recitavit:

“Sancta magna et universalis synodus quę secundum Dei gratia et sanctionem piissimorum christianissimorumqueg' imperatorum nostrorum Valentiniani et Martiani congregata est apud Calcedoniam, metropolim Bithimię provincię, in atrio sanctę et venerabilish' Euphimię diffinivit subter annexai'. Dominus noster et salvator Christus noticiam fidei confirmans discipulis suis ait: ‘Pacem meam do vobis, pacem meam relinquo vobis,’2 ne ullus a proximo suo dissonamj' doctrinam pietatis ostendat. Quoniam vero non quiescit nequissimus suam zizaniam inspargere,k' novi aliquid contra veritatem semper inveniens, ob hoc consuete Dominus noster providens humano generi piissimum et fidelissimum principem ad zelum fidei suscitavit. Qui undique sacerdotum principem ad se convocat, quatenus, gratia Domini feliciter imperatal' ab ovibusm' Christi dogma quidem mendacii submoveret, germen autem pietatis et veritatis pingue efficeret. Quod quidem et fecimus communi decreto dogmatum fugantes errorem, integram vero patrum revocantes fidem CCCXVIII patrum simbolum predicantes et tanquam domesticos, quod pietatis huius compositionem receperunt patres ascribentesn'. Qui postea apud Constantinopolio' convenerunt CL qui et ipsi eandem fidem subsignaverunt.”

“Diffinimus igitur ordinem et omnes formamp' fidei conservamus nos omnesq' quoque. Apud Ephesum olim facta est sancta synodus cuius pręsules fuerunt sanctę memorię Cęlestinus, Romanę urbis antistes, et Cirillus, Alexandrinę Ecclesię pręsulr'. Egeres' quidem rectę et immaculate fidei expositionem CCCXVIII patrumt' apud Niceamu' simul cumv' pię recordationis Constantino principe congregatorum, obtinuere autem etiam quinquaginta et centum sanctorum patrum apud Constantinopolimw' definitam ad interemptionem tunc exortarumx' heresum, confirmationem vero eiusdem catholicę nostrę fidei apud Niceam CCCXVIII patrumy':”

‘Credimus in unum Deum, Patrem omnipotentem, factorem cęli et terrae, visibilium omnium et invisibilium; et in unum Dominum Ihesum Christum, filium Dei unigentium, qui natus est ex Patre ante omnia secula, Deum vero de Deo vero genitum, non factum, consubstantialem Patri, per quem omnia facta sunt, qui propter nos homines et propter nostram salutem descendit et incarnatus est atque humanatus est et passus est et resurrexit tercia die et ascendit in celum, venturus iudicare vivos et mortuos; et in Spiritum Sanctum. Eos autem qui dicunt »erat aliquando quando non erat,« et »priusquam nasceretur, non erat,« et quia exindez' extantibus factus est aut ex alia subsistentia dicentes esse aut convertibilem aut mutabilem filium Dei,’ hos anathematiçat catholica et apostolica Dei Ecclesia.’3

Elyas, sanctę Ecclesie Aquilegiensis episcopus, his gestis subscripsi.
Laurentius presbiter, apostolicę sedis legatus, his gestis subscripsi.
Martianus, episcopus sanctę Ecclesię Opitergine, his gestis subscripsi.
Leonianus, episcopus sanctę Ecclesię Tiborniensis, his gestis subscripsi.a
Petrus, episcopus sanctę Ecclesię Altinatis, his gestis subscripsib.
Vindemius, episcopus sanctę Ecclesię Cesensis, his gestis subscripsic.
Virgilius, episcopus sanctę Ecclesię Patavinęd, his gestis subscripsie.
Clarissimus, episcopus sanctę [Ecclesię]f Celeianę, his gestis subscripsi.
Patricius, episcopus sanctę Ecclesię Emoniensis, his gestis subscripsi.
Adrianus, episcopus sanctę Ecclesię Polensis, his gestis subscripsi.
Massencinusg, episcopus sanctę Ecclesię Viliensish, his gestis subscripsi.
Severus, episcopus sanctę Ecclesię Triestinę, his gestis subscripsi.
Solatius, episcopus sanctę Ecclesię Veronensis, his gestis subscripsi.
Iohannes, episcopus sanctę Ecclesię Parentinę, his gestis subscripsi.
Aaroni, episcopus sanctę Ecclesię Avociensis, his gestis subscripsi.
Martianus, episcopus,j locum faciensk viri beatissimi Ingenuini, episcopi sanctę Ecclesię Sederetięl, his gestis subscripsim.
Virgilius, episcopus sanctę Ecclesię Scaravaciensis,n his gestiso subscripsi.
Superveniens in sancta sinodo his gestis sinus relictis subscripsi.p
Laurentius, presbiter superveniens in sancta sinodo, locum faciens viri beatissimi Frontei, episcopi sanctę Ecclesię Feltrinę, his gestis michi relictis subscripsi.
Martianus, episcopus sanctę Ecclesię Patenatis, superveniens sancta sinodo, his gestis michi relictis subscripsi.
Laurentius, presbiter, super statutis Deo gratias agens subscripsiq.
Emerius, presbiter, super statutis Deo gratias agens subscripsi.
Sergiusr, presbiter, super statutis Deo gratias agens subscripsi.
Dorotheus, presbiter, super statutis Deo gratiass agens subscripsi.
Laurentius, presbiter, super statutis Deot gratias agens subscripsi.
Albinus, presbiter, super statutis gratias Deo agens subscripsi.
Leo, presbiter, super statutis gratias Deo agensu subscripsi.
Martianus, presbiter, super statutis gratias Deov agens subscripsi.
Servancinus, presbiter, super statutis gratias Deow agens subscripsi.
Lucillus, presbiter, super statutis gratias Deo agens subscripsi.
Castus, presbiter, super statutis gratias Deo agens subscripsi.
Provincialis, presbiter, super statutis Deo gratiasx agens subscripsi.

Critical apparatus

a) Virgulo C. bom. C. c) conveniset C. d) in iter. B. eseq. circumquaque add. C. fsic B; quatere C. g) velud C. h) hoc C. i) venerabilem cetum] venerabilis cetus C. jom. C. kal. man. ex vitam corr. B. lseq. in illo add. C. m) nostra C. n) necessitudinem C. o) placeat C. pex hostilem corr. B. q) et C. rseq. comuni add. C. sseq. intuitu add. C. t) placeat C. u) Aquilegiam C. v) placeat C. wseq. ipsa add. C. xseq. privilegium Gradensis Ecclesie add. C. y) moderamine C. z) subocurrere C. aa) poscentum C. bb) ab C. cc) impertire C. dd) assensum C. eeseq. id est Deo add. C. ff) inmissionis C. gg) confrater C. hh) breviarum C. ii) in eis] om. B. jjsic B; suffraganeis C. kkseq. immo add. C. llom. C. mm) et C. nnseq. intencione add. C. ooom. C. pp) supra C. qqseq. senper add. C. rrom. C. ss) ex insania C. ttom. C. uu) que C. vvseq. captum add. C. ww) nostram C.
a') recitentur etiam] recitenturque C. b'sic B; umaminem C; pro: unanimen. c') rogavimus C. d') recitentur C. e'sic BC: pro cunctis. f') exsequentes C. g') christianorumque C. h'seq. martiris add. C. i') adnexa C. j') dissonoque in C. k'seq. que add. C. l') ipetrante C. m') omnibus C. n') adscribentes C. o'sic B; Constantinopolim C. p') forma C. q'om. C. r'om. C. s') prefulgere C. t'seq. sanctorum add. C. u') Nicenam C. v') simul cum] sub C. w') Constantinopoli C. x') exhortarum C. y'seq. simbolum aput Nicenam trecentorum decem et octo patrum add. C. z') ex non C.
aseq. P. gestis subscripsi add. C, fort. per errorem exemplatoris. bom. C. c) his gestis subscripsi iter. C. d) Patavi C. e) his gestis subscripsi] om. C. fom. BC. g) Maxencinus C. hsic B; Iuliensis C. i) Arom C. jseq. archidiaconum add. C. k) facis C. lsic B: pro Secunde Retiae; sedis Recie C. mseq. aliter Sabionensis add. C. nseq. superveniens sancte sinodo add. C. oseq. sinus relictis add. C. pom. C; fort. ad episcopum Virgilium Scaravaciensem spectat, sicut in C conscriptus est. qom. C. r) Sercinus C. s) gratias Deo inv. C. tom. C. u) agens Deo inv. C. vom. C. wom. C. x) gratias Deo inv. C.


1) Cf. doc. 579_PPG.
2) Vulg. Ioh. 14, 27.
3) Acta Concilii Chalcedonensis, actum sub die VIII kalendas novembris (25.X.) 451; cf. Edward Schwartz (ed.), Acta conciliorum oecumenicorum: Concilium Universale Chalcedonense: Rerum Chalcedonensium collectio Vaticana: Canones et symbolum (Berlin-Leipzig 1936), pp. 15-16.

Medieval Recollections

"Temporibus Tyberii Constantini augusti, Helias patriarcha Aquileiensis in Gradensi castro ecclesiam sancte Eufemie fabricari precepit, ibique synodum congregavit, in qua synodo quicquid de Calcedonense concilio dubitabatur, pulsa dubietate, confirmatum est, ibique statuit Ecclesiam Gradensem caput et metropolim totius provincie Histriensium et Venetiarum, cuius Venecie terminus a Pannonia usque ad Adam fluvium protelatur, ępistolamque pro his statutis accepit a beatissimo papa Pelagio, consentientibus universis episcopis iam dictarum provinciarum." [om.]
"Cui [patriarchae Probino] succedens memoratus Helyas patriarcha, hec quę supra scripta sunt ordinavit, et iam dicta corpora sanctorum in miro ordine locavit, domumque sibi a fundamentis fabricari precepit, asserens in synodo supra statuta: 'Karissimi fratres, intervenientibus malis nostris cottidie hostile perpetimur flagellum; et iam pridem ab Atila Unorum rege Aquileia civitas nostra funditus destructa est, et postea Gothorum incessu et ceterorum barbarorum cassata, vix aspirans, sed et nunc Longobardorum nefandę gentis flagella sustinere non potest; quapropter dignum ducit mansuetudo nostra, si vestrę placet sanctitati, in hoc castro Gradensi nostram confìrmare metropolim.' Quo dicto omnibus placuit episcopis, et facto libello statutę suę, id est de memorata Calcidonensi synodo et de hac ipsa sede, subter manibus suis conscripserunt, id est primus Helias patriarcha, id est deinde Marcianus episcopus sanctę Ęcclesię Opetergine, Leonianus episcopus Tyborniensis, Petrus episcopus Altinatis, Vindemius episcopus Cessensis, Burgullus episcopus Patavine Ęcclesię, Ioannes episcopus Celeiane, Clarissimus episcopus Concordiensis, Patricius episcopus Emonensis, Adrianus episcopus Polensis, Maxencius episcopus luliensis, Severus episcopus Tergestinus, Solacius episcopus Veronensis, lohannes episcopus Parentinę Ęcclesię, Aaron episcopus Avonciensis, Ingenuus episcopus secunde Retię, Agnellus episcopus Tridentinus, Vigilius episcopus Scaravaciensis, Fontegius episcopus Feltrensis, Marcianus episcopus Petenatis, Laurentius presbiter et Martinus presbiter atque Emerius presbiter, provinciales et presbiteri ceteri, tam metropolitani quam et plebani; omnes isti suprascripti consentierunt, et omnia in eodem loco confirmaverunt." - Cronica de singulis patriarchis Nove Aquileie (ed. Monticolli, Cronache veneziane antichissime, vol. 1 (Rome 1890), pp. 5-8).

"Mortuo vero apud Aquilegiam patriarcha Probino, qui ecclesiam uno rexerat anno, idem ecclesie sacerdos Helyas preficitur, qui hec que super scripta sunt ordinavit, domumque sibi a fundamentis edificavit et iam dicta corpora sanctorum miro modo collocavit, asserens in synodo supra statutum: 'Karissimi fratres, intervenientibus malis nostris, cottidie hostile perpetimur flagellum. Et iam pridem ab Atila Unorum rege Aquilegia civitas nostra funditus distructa est et postea Gothorum incessu et ceterorum barbarorum cassata, vix aspirans. Sed et nunc Langobardorum infande gentis flagella sustinere non potest; quapropter dignum ducit mansuetudo nostra, si vestre placet sanctitati, in hunc castrum Gradensem nostram confirmare metropolym.' Quo dicto omnibus placuit episcopis, et facto libello statute sue, id est de memorato Calcedonense synodo et de ac ipsa sede, subter manibus suis conscripserunt, id est primus Helyas patriarcha, deinde Marcianus, episcopus sancte Ecclesie Opetergine, Leonianus, episcopus Tyborniensis, Petrus, episcopus Altinatis, Vindemius, episcopus Cessensis, Bergullus, episcopus Patavine Ecclesie, Iohannes, episcopus Celeiane, Clarissimus, episcopus Concordiensis, Patricius, episcopus Emonensis, Adrianus, episcopus Polensis, Maxentius, episcopus Iuliensis, Severus, episcopus Tergestine Ecclesie, Solatius, episcopus Veronensis, Iohannes, episcopus Parentine Ecclesie, Aaron, episcopus Avonciensis, Ingenuus, episcopus secunde Recie, Agnellus, episcopus Tridentine, Vigilius, episcopus Scaravaciensis, Fontegius, episcopus Feltrensis, Martianus, episcopus Petenatis, Laurentius presbyter et Marinus presbyter atque Emerius presbyter provinciales, et ceteri presbyteri tam metropolitani quamque et plebani. Omnes isti suprascripti consentierunt et omnia in eodem loco confirmaverunt." - John the Deacon, Istoria Veneticorum (ed. Luigi Andrea Berto (Bologna 1999), p. 62).

Selected Bibliography
Roberto Cessi, "Nova Aquileia," Atti del Reale Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti 88/2 (1928-1929): pp. 543-94.
Giuseppe Cuscito, "La fede calcedonese e i concili di Grado (579) e di Marano (591)," in Antichità Altoadriatiche, vol. 17: Grado nella storia e nell'arte (Trieste 1980), pp. 207-30.
Lujo Margetić, "Il sinodo di Grado di Elia (572-577)," in Lujo Margetić, Histrica et Adriatica: Raccolta di saggi storico-giuridici e storici (Trieste 1983), pp. 135-40.
Marco Pozza, "I Libri Pactorum del comune di Venezia," in Atti della Società Ligure di Storia Patria, n.s., 42/1: Comuni e memoria storica: Alle origini del comune di Genova (2002): p. 203.
Editor's Notes

The preserved acts of the Synod of Grado present considerable difficulties in their interpretation. The oldest surviving parts of the acts are preserved extremely partially in the acts of the Synod of Mantua from 827 (see the document here) and in two 11th-century Venetian chronicles: John the Deacon's Istoria Veneticorum and the Cronica de singulis patriarchis Nove Aquileie written by an anonymous author. The two chronicles, however, report an already falsified part of the acts, namely the official transfer of the patriarchal see from Aquileia to Grado, the "New Aquileia." Cessi argued that these falsifications come in four layers, the oldest one dating from the beginning of the 9th century, the youngest from the mid-11th. Thus, Cessi tried to "peel off" these later layers in order to uncover the putative "authentic core" of these acts; by doing so, he came up with a speculative edition published in the editions referenced above. According to Cessi, the dating, the subscriptions, and only the last part, the one referring to the upholding of Nicaean creed and the symbol of faith, would indeed be authentic parts of the original acts; everything regarding Grado as the "New Aquileia" and the transfer of seat from Aquileia to Grado, including the papal charter from 579, would be later forgeries.

Further criticism, however, put a question mark even on the dating of the synod. Namely, the acts of the Synod of Mantua from 827 (preserved only as 15th-century copy, but exhibiting no signs of contaminations) mention a Flaminius as the bishop of Trento during the Synod of Grado (cf. the acts here) and not Agnellus as do the contaminated acts of the Synod of Grado hereby edited. The fragment written by Secundus of Trento in 580, a document whose authenticity is unquestionable, reports that the year 580 was Agnellus' third year as the bishop of Trento (the document is edited in extenso, annotated, and translated in Lieve Van Hoof and Peter Van Nuffelen (eds.), The Fragmentary Latin Histories of Late Antiquity (AD 300-620): Edition, Translation and Commentary (Cambridge 2020), pp. 242-45). Thus, since Agnellus was the bishop of Trento from 577, that would mean, if one chooses to give more faith to the non-contaminated acts of the Synod of Mantua, that the original Synod of Grado must have taken place before 577, during the time of Bishop Flaminius, Agnellus' predecessor. Since Helias became the patriarch of Aquileia in 572, the relative dating of "between 572 and 577" is reached (proposed already by Johann Friedrich, "Die ecclesia Augustana in dem Schreiben der istrischen Bischöfe an Kaiser Mauritius vom Jahre 591 und die Synode von Gradus zwischen 572 und 577," Sitzungsberichte der philosophisch-philologische und historische Klasse der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften München (1906): p. 348). Therefore, the dating "imperante domino serenissimo Tiberio Constantino augusto, anno imperii eius quinto, eodem consule, sub die tercio nonarum novembrium, indictione XIIIa," first reported in Dandolo's Chronica per extensum descripta and later transcribed in the Liber pactorum, would be entirely made up by Andrea Dandolo (the dating elements indeed do not concur with each other).

Finally, Lujo Margetić even endeavoured to interpret the profession of creed as a later falsification, also done by Andrea Dandolo and his scribe on the basis of descriptions of the Synod of Grado offered in Cronica de singulis patriarchis Nove Aquileie: "quicquid de Calcedonense concilio dubitabatur, pulsa dubie­tate, confirmatum est." This line, argues Margetić, inspired Andrea Dandolo to invent an additional part of his entirely fictitious acts and insert the symbol of faith as the last part of the acts, right before the subscriptions. However, this symbol, argues Margetić, is anachronical to late 6th-century theology as it stems from the Council of Nicaea, and this is the main argument for denouncing the entire part as a later forgery: "La presunta ‘presa di posizione’ del sinodo gradense non è affatto scismatica né ortodossa, ma semplicemente antiquata e veramente inimmaginabile nella seconda metà del secolo VI." (Margetić, "Il sinodo gradense di Elia," p. 139). Therefore, Margetić concludes, the only authentic parts concerning the Synod of Grado are those few lines reported in the acts of the Synod of Mantua; everything else, the entire document copied by Andrea Dandolo (and subsequently the one copied in the Liber pactorum) must be interpreted as wholly spurious.

Margetić's criticism is not warranted. Namely, the profession of creed featured in the acts of the Synod of Grado follows almost verbatim the one featured in the acts of the Ecumenical Council of Chalcedon (Edward Schwartz (ed.), Acta conciliorum oecumenicorum: Concilium Universale Chalcedonense: Rerum Chalcedonensium collectio Vaticana: Canones et symbolum (Berlin-Leipzig 1936), pp. 15-16; Edward Schwartz (ed.), Edward Schwartz (ed.), Acta conciliorum oecumenicorum: Concilium Universale Constantinopolitanum sub Iustiniano habitum, vol. 2: Iohannis Maxentii libelli - Collectio codicis Novariensis XXX - Collectio codicis Parisini 1682 - Procli tomus ad Armenios - Iohannis Papae II epistula ad viros illustres (Strasbourg 1914), pp. 138-41). Therefore, it seems far more likely that the bishops and clergy united in Grado read the entire profession of creed as defined by the Council of Chalcedon, but that the copyist, copying the acts of the Synod of Grado sometime between the 6th and the 14th century, only transcribed the beginning.

The crux of the Synod, however, remains the same whether one chooses to follow either Cessi or Margetić: the bishops solemnly refused to condemn the Three Chapters, refused to accept the conclusions of the Second Council of Constantinople, professed fealty to the Council of Chalcedon and persevered in their "schism". See more about the Schism of Three Chapters here.

How to Cite
First citation: Josip Banic (ed.), Fontes Istrie medievalis, vol. 1: A seculo VI usque ad 803, doc. 579_SG, fontesistrie.eu/579_SG (last access: date).
Subsequent citations: FIM, 1: doc. 579_SG.