Era
Vol. 1: A seculo VI usque ad 803
Series
Date
4th of October 546 (the ordination of Maximian as the bishop of Ravenna) to 22nd of February 556/7 (the presumed death of Bishop Maximian)
Regestum

Emperor Justinian I has Pope Vigilius I consecrate Maximian, a deacon from Pula, as the new bishop of Ravenna; once installed as bishop, Maximian embarks on several architectural projects, including the building of the Santa Maria Formosa church in Pula (narrative accounts from the Life of Saint Maximian written by Agnellus of Ravenna in his Book of the Pontiffs of the Church of Ravenna).

Source
Agnellus of Ravenna, The Book of the Pontiffs of the Church of Ravenna (Liber pontificalis Ecclesiae Ravennatis), written between 830–850; the original is lost and only much later copies survive (see this link); the codex optimus, used in this edition as well, is the following:
B = Modena, Biblioteca Estense Universitaria, ms. lat. 371 (= alfa P.4.9), fols. 15v–17r; copy from the first quarter of the 15th century.
Previous Editions
Oswald Holder-Egger (ed.), “Agnelli qui et Andreas liber pontificalis ecclesiae Ravennatis,” in Scriptores rerum Langobardicarum et Italicarum saec. VI–IX, Monumenta Germaniae historica, Scriptores, Scriptores rerum Langobardicarum et Italicarum 1 (Hannover 1878), pp. 325–33 (attempt at a reconstructive edition);
Alessandro Testi-Rasponi (ed.), Codex pontificalis Ecclesiae Ravennatis, Rerum Italicarum scriptores, nova series, 2/3 (Bologna 1924), pp. 186–213 (extremely thickly annotated diplomatic edition based on B);
Deborah Mauskopf Deliyannis, “The Liber Pontificalis Ecclesiae Ravennatis: Critical Edition and Commentary,” PhD Thesis (Philadelphia 1994), pp. 523–33 (diplomatic edition based on B);
Deborah Mauskopf Deliyannis (ed.), Liber pontificalis ecclesiae Rauennatis, Corpus Christianorum: Continuatio Mediaevalis 199 (Turnhout 2006), pp. 238–51 (the best reconstructive edition of the text).
FIM Edition
Diplomatic edition based on B but maintaining the paragraph numbering as introduced by Holder-Egger and referencing Mauskopf Deliyannis’ solutions to problematic passages in the critical apparatus.
Transcription

De sancto Maximiano XXVI.

[69] Maximianus XXVI, longeva statura, tenui corpore, macilentus in facie, calvus capite, modicos habuit capilos, oculos glaucos, et omni gratia decoratus. Hic non ex hoc fuit oville, sed aliena ovis ex Polense Eclesia, diaconus a suo antistite ordinatus est.

[70] Sed cur alinigenaa pontificatum istius urbis tenuit? Indicabo, nomb abscondam, sed publice patefacciam, sicut a narantibus per curicula temporum longa audivi, et veritas est absque ulla dubitatione.
<Thesaurus magnus inventus> Quidamc vero die dum terra foderet, ut semina eiceret primus tonsa cesalis, statim invenit vas magnum auro plenum et allias multas diviciarum species. Qui, excogitato a semet ipso consilio, quod iam non poterat latere, iussit bovem magnum deferri et occidi, et ventrem eius prevacuatum stercore iussit ex nomismata auri inpleri. Similiter accersivit sutores calciamentorum, precepit illis ut magnas zanchas ex ircorumd pelibus operarent, qui et ipsas ex solidis aureis repleree. Reliquum vero quif remansit cum in Constantinopolitanam urbem profectus fuisset se cum detulit Iustiniano que imperatori obtulit. Quod ut uidit augustus, post graciarum actionem diligenter eum interogavit si plus fuisset. At ille iusiurandum respondit imperatori:

“Per salutem tuam, domine, et pro salute anima vestrag, quia non amplius inde habeo nisi quantum in ventrem et in zancas expendi.”

Ille cogitavit quod [de] victu dixisset corporis et calciamentash pedum; ille autem dicebat de eo quod ocultum habebat. Iustinianus autem cogitabat qualem retribuctionem ei dedisset pro tali fide, quam ipse sibi detulerat.
<Consecratio beati Maximiani in archiepiscopum Ravennatem> Contigit eo tempore ut moriretur Victor episcopus huius civitatis Ravenne, et euntes cives Ravennatis, sacerdotes cum universa plebe, ad imperatorem, paleumi postulantes ad electioj. Post precepit augustus petitoribus moras habere. Qui, excogitato consilio, iussit cunsecrari beatum Maximianum Polensem diaconum episcopum a Vigilio papa in civitate Patras aput Achaiam pridie Idus octubris, indicione X, quinquies pacificik Basilii iunioris, anno nativitatis sue XLVIII, et dato palio Ravennam misit.1
<Ecclesia beati Georgii> Qui cum noluissent eum sic cicius Ravennates cives recipere, morabatur extra portas sancti Victoris, non longe a fluvio qui vocatur fossa Scontil, in basilica beati Eusebii, in episcopio quod Unimundus episcopus tenporibus Theodorici regis hedificavit; similiter et in episcopio eclesie beati Georgii, quod Arianorum temporibus edificatum est.
<Domus Nova alius Valeriana> Et predicta episcopia usque ad nostra tempora permanserunt, penneque annos XXVI demolita sunt, iubente Valerio presule, ex quibus domum que nunc Nova atque pocius Valeriana nuncupatur construi iussit.

[71] Plebs igitur, ut diximus, cum noluisset eum recipere, voluerunt viri ex parte pontificis ut mitterent legatos ad ipsum imperatorema, nunciantes quod prophana illius fuisset iussa.
Et in atrocem superbiam Ravenantes perdurantes noluissetb noluissent ordinatum recipere pontificem, et viduata Eclesia, huc illuc gregem vacaretc. Quibus vero beatissimus Maximianus non cunsensit, sed cunfregit eos sermonibus dicens:

“Cessate, fratres, nolite alios accusare, nolite letare in alterius ruinam. Qualis ergo pastor sum si ovibus meis non pepercero? Vultis ut laniem eas? Non hoc bonum consilium. Sinite illasd, non per me ulla molest[i]a erit. Volunptas Domini fiat. Obsecro vos, modicis diebus illis inducias date.”

Nom post multos dies missit fidelem nuncium ete suis hominibus; vocavit unum ex sacerdotibus et primatibus urbis, rogavit eos se cum prandere. Cum vero venissent, letificavit se cum illis, et post cibum et potum obtulit dona ex auro quod dudum invenerat. Pacificatus cum illis, cum benedictione remissit infra hanc civitatem Ravenne, et postulavit ab eis ut frequenter vissitare[n]t eum. Dies vero crastina missit et rogavit alios primates, et fecit sicut prius, similiter et tercia decimaf.
Tunc retulerunt inter se invicem huisscemodig res et dixerunt:

“Quid est quod facere volumus? Vir iste bonum est, prudens est. Nos cogitavimus cuntra eum nociva, ille noluit nobis malum pro malo redere. Non possimush sine pontifice et patremi esse. Ecce sacerdotes vagant, populus claudicat, Eclesia decrescit. Surgamus diliculo, intromitamus eum in civitatem et adoremus vestigia eius.”

Tunc surgente aurora ierunt unanimes omnes quasi vir unus, et aperientes portas civitatis cun crucibus et signis et bandis et laudibus introduxerunt eum honorifice infra hanc civitatem Ravenne, et obsculaveruntj pedes eius et ornaverunt plateas civitatis decoratas diversis ornatibus. Omnesque coronantur edes, fiebat militantibus leticiamk, privatis alacritas, et pusili et magni ovantes, et mediocres letificantes. Et sedere rogaverunt eum in sede eclesie et missas audierunt ab eo et agebant illuml diem solenpnitatis cum gaudio magno et leticia sempiterna.

[72] Post hec autem fuit cum ovibus quasi pater filiis.
<Monasterium sancti Stephani> Edificavitque eclesiam beati Stephania hic Ravene, levitab et martiris, non longe a posterula Ovilionis a fundamentis; mira magnitudine decoravit pulcerimeque ornavit. <Quia hic Ravenna in civitate non est nisi unum monasterium sancti Stephani, in quo stant moniales, et per ea que videri possunt non apparet de tanta hedificiorum et rerum preciosarum structura, quod monasterium est prope eclesiam sancti Andree Gothorum que vulgariter dicitur eclesia Gothica, credo quod istud monasterium, de quo hic in ista ystoria sit mentio, fuit prope eclesiam sancti Barbaciani, que est non longe a monasterio et eclesia sancti Zacharie, prout vidi et videri potest in quodam instrumento publico manu Morandi notarii quod est in eius protocolis in MCCLXXXXVI, die ___, mense ___, a folio ___, et est in cartulario dominorum cardinalium Eclesie Ravenatis.>
Et in cameris tribune sua effigies tesselis variis infixa est, et per in giro mirifice oppere victreo constructa est, multasque reliquias ibidem condididc sanctorum corporibus, de quorum nominad ita exarata invenietis:

“In honore sancti ac beatissimi primi martiris Stephani servus Christi Maximianus episcopus hanc basilicam, Ipso adiuvante, a fundamentis construxit et dedicavit die tercio Idus Decenbris, indicione XIIII, novies pacificie Basilii iunioris.”

Et gavisus est in Domino, qui ei tanta prestitit bona quanta nulus hominum digne enarare valeat. Collocavit autem hic merita apostolorum et martirum, idest sancti Petri, sancti Pauli, sancti Andree, sancti Zacharie, sancti Iohannis baptiste, sancti Iohannis evangeliste, sancti Iacobi, sancti Thome, sancti Mathei, sancti Stephani, sancti Vincenti, sancti Laurenti, sancti Quirini, sancti Floriani, sancti Emiliani, sancti Apolenaris, sancte Agathe, sancte Eufimie, sancte Agnetis, sancte Eugenie; qui orent pro nobis. Et superciliumf arcus tribune invenietis versus metricos continentes ita:

“Templa micant Stephani meritis et nomine sacra,
Qui prius eximium martiris egit opus.
Omnibus una datur sacro pro sanguine palma,
Plus tamen hic fruitur, tempore quo prior est.
Ipse fidem votumque tuum nunc, magne sacerdos
Maximiane, iuvans, hoc opus explicuit.
Nam talem subito fundatis molibus aulam
Sola manus hominum non poterat facerre.
Undecimum fulgens renovat dum luna recursum
Et ceptag et pulcro condita fine nitet.”

Ad latera vero ipsius basilice monasteria parva subiuncxit, que omnia novis teselis auratis simulque promiscuis aliis calce infixis mirabiliter apparent; super capitaque omnium colunpnarum ipsius Maximiani nomen sculptum est. Monasterio vero parte virorum sex literas lithostratas invenietis; ignorantes ad errorem perducunt, nam scientes ibidem scripta MU. SI. VA. esse inteligunt.

[73] Asserunt nonnulli quod quidama dieb accersitum archiergatum, id est principem operis, pontifex interogavit et cur edificium predicte eclesie non perficeret. At ille notuit dicens:

“Eo quod tu, domine noster, navigassetc in partibus Constantinopollimd, cementum et laterculla defecerunt, neque tantos habemus lapides ut laborare potuissemus.”

<Miracullum> Tunc iussu pontificis nocte una tanta alata sunt omnia paramenta, calces et laterculla, petras et bisales, lapides et ligna, columnas et lastas, harenas et sabullos in una note, ut dixi, preparaverunt vectores, quanta vix in undecim lucinise laborare potuerant.

[74] <Silva que vocatur Vistrum teritorii Istriensis> Dunque in tenporibus istius sanctissimi pontificis orta esset intentio de silva que cognominatur Vistrum, sita Istrientisa partibus, bis in Constantinopulis se detulit, ut talem [in] Iustiniani augusti presentia cunsumeret contencionem. Ambo canicie in eodem tempore exornati, quantus recolerent se, a iuventute disiuncti, in senectute coniuncti, amarisime pariterque ceperunt lugere. Dein hicb vero pius inperator Iustinianus augustus preceptum sibi ex eadem silva condidit perpetue legaliterque in sancta Ravenensis Eclesia esse, quam iuste et racionabiliter sibi pertinere cognoverat.

[75] <Tricoli domus completa a Maximiano> Iste Tricolim suis temporibus omnia hedificia complevit et ubi ipse cun suis intecessoribusa depictus est; si legere vultis, aspicientes, ita scriptum invenietis:

“Hic Petrus iunior, Christi conceptab secutus,
Ut docuit sacris moribus exhibuit.
Huncc quoque fundavit mirandis molibus arcem,
Nominis ipse sui hec monumenta dedit.
Huius post obitum Aurelianus gessit honores,
Post hunc antistes extitit Ecclesius;
Hinc fuit Ursicinus, sequitur post ordine Victor;
Temporibus iunior Maximianus adest.
His Polensis erat, Christi levita profundus,
Lege Dei miserans et pietate bonus.
Quem Deus ipse virum decoravit culmine sacro
Ecclesieque suae pontificem statuit;
Ipse autem factis propriis se non meruisse
Culmen apostolicum, sed pietate Dei.”

[76] <Eclesia sancte Marie in Polla> Edificavitque eclesiam beate Marie in Polla que vocatur Formossa, unde diaconus fuit, mira pulcritudine, et diversis ornavit lapidibus. Duma vero ubi rector istius Ecclesie in ipsa civitate habitat, ipse hedificavit et omnes opes suas Ravenati Ecclesia tradidit, quas usque hodie possidemus.
<Eclesia sancti Andree apostoli> Ecclesiam vero beati Andree apostoli hic Ravene cum omni diligentia, non longe a regione Herculana, columnas marmoreas suffulsit, ablatasque vetustas ligneas de nucibus proconisas decoravit. Tunc ablatum corpus ipsius apostoli Ravenam ducere conabatur.
Dum hoc presensisset imperatorb Constantinopolitanus, iussit beatum Maximianum Constantinopolim venire et pium apostoli corpus se cum defere. Quo gavissus imperator ait ad eum:

“Non sit tibi gravis, pater, quod prima[m] unus tenet Roma[m] frater, iste vero secundam teneat. Ambe sorores et hi ambo germani. Nonc tibi eum dare, quia et ubi sedes imperialis est, expedit et ibi corpus esse apostoli.”

At beatisimus Maximianus dixit:

“Fac quomodo iubes; tantum postulo ut in hac nocte cum meis sacerdotibus ad hoc sanctum corpus psalmodiam peragamus.”

Imperator moxque concessit.
<Barba sancti Andree apostoli> Tunc tota note pervigiles extiterunt, et post expleta omnia aripiens gladium, oratione facta, abscidit barbas apostoli usque ad mentum. Et ex reliquiis aliorum multorum sanctorum reliquias detulit cum augusti alacritate; dehinc quoque ad propriam reversus est sedem.
Et re vera, fratres, quia si corpus beati Andree, germani Petri principis, hic humasset, nequaquam nos Romani pontifices sic subiugasse[n]t.

[77] <Consecravit ecclesiam beati Apolenaris in Clase et eclesiam beati Vitalis martiris et eclesiam archangeli Michaelis> Consecravit eclesiam beati Apolenaris pontificis in Clase sitam et beati Vitalis martiris in Ravena et beati archangeli Michaelis hic Ravene, quam Bachauda cum santaa recordationis memoria Iuliano argentario edificavit in regione qui dicitur Ad Frigiselo. Ibique invenietis in camera tribune ita legentem:

“Consecuti beneficia archangeli Michaelis, Bacauda et Iulianus a fundamentis fecerunt et dedicaverunt sub die Nonas mai quater pacificib Basili[i] iunioris viri clarisimi comsulisc, indicione VIII.”

<Bacaudi sepulcrum> Et, ut asserunt quidam hic Bacauda gener predicti Iuliani fuisset, et in archa saxea non longe ab ipsa archangeli eclesia infra turem Bacauda requiescit.
Et in tribuna beati Vitalis eiusdem Maximiani effigies atque augusti et auguste teselis valde computated sunt. Quamdiu possumus de hoc sancto viro tantam bonitatem reffere, deficit michi tempus narationis. Iste plus omnibus laboravit quam ceteri pontifices predecessores sui.
Ilius temporibus hedificatus est numerus vicinus domui mee qui dicitur banchuse primus, non longe a miliario aureo, et illius nomen etiam in tegulis exaratum invenimus ita: “Maximianus episcopus Ravene,” quod ego vidi et legi.
<Iulianus argentarius fundator eclesiarum sancti Apolenaris in Clase et sancti Vitalis> In ardica que beati Apolenaris et Vitalis tabulas descriptas invenietis magnis literis continentes ita:

“Beati Apolenaris sacerdotis basilica[m], mandante verof beatissimo Ursicino episcopo, a fundamentis Iulianus argentarius edificavit, ornavit atque dedicavit, consecrante verog beato Maximiano episcopo, die VIIIIh maiarum, indicione XII, octies pacificii Basilii.”

In ardica beati Vitalis ita invenietis:

“Beati martiris Vitalis basilica[m], mandante Eclesio veroj beatissimo episcopo, a fundamentis Iulianus argentarius edificavit, ornavit atque dedicavit, consecrante verok reverendissimo Maximiano episcopo, sub die XIII [Kalendas maii, indictione X,]l sexies pacificim Basilii iunioris.”

<Corpus beati Probi archiepiscopi> Corpus vero beati Probi cum ceteris sanctorum pontificum corporibus iste sanctus vir aromatibus condivit et bene locavit, et in fronte ipsius eclesie beatorum Probi et Eleuchadii et Caloceri efigies tesselis variis decoravit, et sub pedibus eorum invenietis.n

[78] Navigaverat iam hic beatissimus antea partibus orientalis, sicut ipse in suis voluminibus loquitur dicens:

“In Alexandria vero nulla extrinsecus mali caussa, sed quod genus hominum ferox sediciossum senper inquietum est, civile inter se motum est bellum; non virtutis merito, neque ob defensionem, sed ob necem atque interitum civium, comoti universi prefectum suum intra eclesiam occiderunt, quod iam antea aliquanti similiter episcopum suum accusantes hereticum interfecerant. Quo cunperto, imperator in iram versus, funditus civitatem iussit everti. Denique misso alio prefecto nomine Laudicio, intra ipsam civitatem XL viros per singulas regiones in ligno suspendit. Sed tunc elaboravit Dioscorus, eiusdem episcopus, et manifeste possuit animam suam pro ovibus suis; electique ex heremo monachi aput imperatorem properant atque [pro] excessu civium veniam exorant. Tunc imperator cessit sacerdotibus et deinceps cavere a talibus mandavit. Huic episcopo apud Alexandriam Thimoteus successit, quem ego navigans orientem in sua civitate bene administrante[m] vidi. <De magno teremotu in Nazaraba> Sed ante pauca Nazarba civitas Cilicie teremotu facto concidit, in qua perisse ferunt amplius XXX milia hominum.”

Hec pontificis verba sunt. Post beatum Ieronimum et Orosium vel alios historiographos iste in cronicis laboravit, et ipsos secutisa per diversos libros nobiliorum principum, non solum inpiorumb inperatorum, sed et regum et prefectorum, suam propriam chronicam exaravit.

[79] <Pugna inter Gothos et milites> Istius vero tenporibus pugna facta est inter Gothos et milites exierunta Narsis in Kalendas octubris in Canpania; et cessib sunt Gothi et corpora hominum Gothorum multa mortua sunt.
<Theia rex Gothorum occiditur> Et occissus est Theia rex Gothorum a Narsi. Et reversus est in pace et venit Lucam, expulit inde Gothos mensis septenbris. Et restituta est civitas Foro Cornelii ab Anthiocho prefecto. Et iterum venit Ravenna[m] predictus Narsis cum victoria magna; deinde ivit Romam, et perrexit in Canpaniam in castrum Cumas et ibi moratus est.
<Heresis Manicheorum Ra[venna] oritur> Post hec autem Manicheorum hereses exorta est in civitate Ravena, quam orthodoxi christiani convincentes, eiecerunt extra civitatem, in loco qui dicitur Fossa Sconii iuxta fluvium lapidibus obruerunt, et mortui sunt in pecatis suis, et ablata sunt mala a Ravenna.
<Signum ruboris in cello> Post tercium vero annum signum ruboris apparvit in cellum die XI mensis novenbris; mortuusque est papa Pelagius die IIIa mensis marcii.
Tunc Narsis patricius cum exercitu suo Romam perrexit.
<Signa multa in cello> Et in ipso tempore multa signa et prodigia facta sunt circa Ravenam, ita ut multi signarent res suas et domos et vasa ut agnoscerentur; et a multis apparebant visiones in die, quaxi homines secum loquentes facie ad faciem.
<Verona capitur a Ravenatibus> Et pugnauerunt contra Veronenses cives, et capta est Verona civitas a militibus XXo die mensis iullii.
<Bellum in cello hominum preliantium de quo Gregorius facit mentionem in homelias super evangelio Dominice prime de adventu>2 Et vissum est aliud signum magnum et teribille, et ece in aere quasi hominum pugna inter se dimicantes velut in prelium, VIII Kalendas augusti, hora diei tertia, die II ferria, et exinde teriti sunt multi.
Hora est iam claudendi hanc lectionem, ut quod sequitur crastino audiamus.

[80] Fecitque duo crismataria vascula, quorum unus libras habuit quatuordecim, mirifice anagrifaa operatione, sed ante tenpus nuper periit Petronacis archiepiscopi temporibus; aliud vero permanet in presenti, pulcherime operatum, in quo legitur:

“Servus Christi Maximianus archiepiscopus hunc crismatarium ad usus fidelium fecit.”

Fieri iussit ipse endothim bissinam preciosissinam, cui similem nunquam videre potuimus, acucullisb factam, omnem Salvatoris nostri historiam cuntinentem. In sancto die epiphanie super altarium Ursiane eclesiae ponitur. Sed non tota[m] cunplevit; successor ipsius explevit unam partem. Quis similem videre potuit? Non potest aliter extimare ipsas imagines aut bestias aut volucres que ibi facte sunt, nisi quod in carne omnes vive sint. Et ipsius Maximiani effigies in duobus locis preclare facte sunt, una maior et altera minor, sed nulla inter maiorem et minorem distantia est. In minore habet literas exaratas continentes ita:

“Magnificate Dominum mecum, qui me de stercore exaltavit.”

Fecitque aliam endothin ex auro ub[i] sunt omnes predecessores sui, auro textiles imagines fieri iussit. Fecitque terciam, et quartam cum margaritis, in qua legitur:

“Parce, Domine, populo Tuo, et memento mei pecatori[s], quem de stercore exaltasti in Regno Tuo.”

Crucem vero auream maiorem ipse fieri iussit et preciosissimis gemmis et margaritis ornavit, iachintos et amethistos et sardios et smaragdos, et infra aurum medio loco crucis de ligno sancte redenptricis nostrac crucis, ubi corpus Domini pependit, occultavit. Est autem auri maximum pundusd.

[81] Fecitque omnes eclesiasticos libros, id est septuaginta duo, optime scribere, quos diu et cautissime legit, absque reprehensione nobis reliquit, quibus usque hodie utimur. Et ultimo loco evangeliorum et apostolorum epistolarum, si requirere vultis, ipsius literas invenietis ita monentes:

“Emendavi cautissime cum his que Augustinus et secundum evangelia que beatus Ieronimus Romam missit et parentibus suis direxit, tantum ne ab idiotis vel mali[s] scriptoribus vicientur.”

Edidit nanque misales per totum circulum anni et sanctorum omnium; cotidianis nanque et quadragesimalibus temporibus, vel quicquid ad eclesiaa ritum pertinet, omnia ibi sine dubio invenietis, grande volumen mire exaratum.
Modicum de illius habemus dictis. Que Romam transmeata sunt, et quantum ibidem cogniti sunt, Romulides qui viderunt XII libros sub uno volumine exaratos.

[82] Pauca de multis diximus, pluraa de eo invenietis quam hic legistis. Nunquam suas laniavit oves, nunquam [mo]mordit, nunquam percussit, sed refovit eloquiis, nutrivit alimentis, monuit vagos, revocavit erantes, colegit dispersos, ministravit inopi, condoluit tribulanti. Miror modo iste qui ex alteriusb fuit sede sic se cum suis disposuit ovibus qui nulumc contra eum sermonem unquam mutilavitd. Modo ex nobis ipsis pastorem habentes, postquam sedes adipiscunt[ur], dentibus devorare volunt, nec ullam nesciunt habere misericordiam. Plus sublimitatem seculi quan celeste[m] gloria[m] querunt; non participant cum ovibus, sed res Ecclesie soli deglutiunt, et tales ex ipsis opibus nutriti fiunt qui nec Ecclesiae serviunt, sed magis depopulant, neque pro dimisoris animamf preces Deo ei fundunt.
Tunc ipse oves cotidie merendo clamant ad Dominum dicentes:

“Erue nos, Domine, de captione dentum pastoris nostri, quia non mercenarii locum, sed crudelitatem lupi tenet, omnes nos in sua extolentia cunsumit.”

Hic vero beatissimus Maximianus nunquam talia peregit, sed cum mansuetudine inimicorum suorum corda humiliavit, ut adimpleret quod scriptum est: “Noli vinci a malo, sed vince in bono malum.”3 Et alibi: “In pacientia vestra posidebitis animas vestras.”4

<Sepulcrum beati Maximiani archiepiscopi> VIII Kalendas martii obiit sepultusque est in basilica sancti Andree apostoli iuxta altarium, ubi barbas predicti apostoli condidit; sed modo nostris temporibus iuxta ipsius eclesie apostoli sedes sepultus est.

[83] Quinto decimo anno Patronaci[s] archiepiscopi5, dum singuli eum ortaremur verbis quod predictum corpus beati Maximiani desub tera traheret et in sublimum poneret locum, die quadam ad semetipsum rediens, iussit nos omnes sacerdotes una secum ad eclesiam beati Andree properare; qui in cordibus nostris oracionem factam, iussit cementariis plathomam desuper levari; sed incaute agentes, fracta est.
Iratus modicum pontifex cepit comminare cementariis; tunc dixit decimo presbitero in ordine sedis sue, nomine Agnelus qui Andreas vocabatur – erat autem ille illo tempore artificiorum omni[um] ingeniis plenus –:

“Esto hic prope, precipe artificibus quomodo facere debeant ne archa aut lapis quaa ei superposita est frangatur.”

Quo deposito, artifices paraverunt omnia iuxta preceptum presbiteri, et elevatus lapis cum quo clausa erat arca, apparuerunt ossa beati Maximiani, subtus aqua, vas autem aqua plenum erat.
Et ut vidimus, cepimus plorare fortiter una cum nostro presulle, plorantesque dicebamus ad invicem:

“Ubi sunt, pastor Maximiane, oves tue, ubi grex tua, ubi populus tuus, quem Domino adquixisti? Ubi monita, ubi dulcia eloquia, ubi sancta predicatio, ubi tua doctrina? Si dixerimus ‘tu noster pastor,’ istum presentem quomodo abiciamus? Ecce ambo pastores in uno estis, et tu qui iaces exanimis et hic qui plorat, cui nos obedire oportet. Viscera nostra exenplum tuum constringet. Ecce nos te requirimus et diligimus, quanto magis amabilis fuisti illis omnibus qui te noverunt!”

Postquam omnes diutissime et amarissime flevimus, sacciati luctu, alatum est nobis ereum vasculum quod vulgo sicclum vocamus; et proiecti sunt siccli pleni aqua, que erat infra archam super ossa beati Maximiani, numero CXV, quos ego ipse palam omnibus ore proprio [numeravi]. Ablata vero omnia ossa voluta sunt in syndone, que erat super altarium beati Andree apostoli, et ligata sindone, sigillum ex latere suo pontifex anulo signavit. Post hec vero archa excussa est absque ulla lesione et lavata; diligenter sursum locavimus.
Que vero ossa omnia integra invenimus tenu[i]a erant, sed procera, et sic ordinata ad iuncturas suas quasi pene anno uno exempta carne fuissent; nula minuitas, nisi dens unus dextere parti deerat. Igitur lavata ossa cum vino electo, condita aromatibus ordinabiliterb, cum psalentium presentiac presulis, omnia in eadem archa posita sunt et cum ingenti luctu amabiliter sepulcro clausa sunt. Nos qui vidimus per multos dies fuit talis timor et tremor, velut ipse beatus Maximianus conspectui nostro staret.
Sedit annos ___, menses ___, dies ___.

Critical apparatus

70. asic B: pro alienigena bsic B: pro non. csic B: pro quadam. dsic B: pro hircorum. esic B: pro repleret. fsic B: pro quod. g) anima vestra] sic B: pro animae vestrae. hsic B: pro calciamentis. isic B: pro pallium. jsic B: pro electum. ksic B: profecto p.c. pro post consulatum primitus scriptum est et ignorantia exemplatoris ista abbreviatio in pacifici demutatur. lsic B: pro Scontii.
71. aadd. in marg. B. bsic B: errato exemplatoris scriptum. c) gregem vacaret] sic B: pro grex vagaret.  dsic B: pro illos.  esic B: pro ex.  fsic B: pro die.  gsic B: pro huiusmodi. hsic B: pro possumus. isic B: pro patre. jsic B: pro osculaverunt. ksic B: pro letitia. lsic B: pro illam.
72. asic B. bsic B: pro levitae. csic B: pro condidit. d) sanctorum corporibus de quorum nomina] sic B: pro sanctorum de corporibus, quorum nomina. e) vedi notam capituli 70 signatam “k”. fsic B: pro supercilio. g) Et cepta] sic B: pro Excepta.
73. asic B: pro quadam. bseq. ac canc. B. csic B: pro navigasses. dsic B: pro Constantinopolis. esic B: pro lunis.
74. asic B: pro Istriensis. b) Dein hic] sic B: pro dehinc.
75. asic B: pro antecessoribus. bsic B: pro precepta. csic B: pro hanc.
76. asic B: pro domum. badd. in marg. B. csic B: pro nolo.
77. a) santa – memoria] sic B: pro sanctae memoriae. bvedi notam capituli 70 signatam “k”. csic B. dsic B: pro comptitatae. esic B: pro bandus. fsic B: pro viro. gsic B: pro viro. hsic B: fort. pro VII Idus. ivedi notam capituli 70 signatam “k”. jsic B: pro viro. ksic B: pro viro. lcf. Hieronymus Rubeus, Historiarum Ravennatum libri decem (Venetiis 1589), p. 160: “In Divi autem Vitalis porticu, quam Ardicam appellabant, haec legebantur: ‘Beati Vitalis basilicam, mandato Ecclesii episcopi, Iulianus argentarius aedificavit, ornavit atque dedicavit: consecrante vero reverentissimo Maximiano episcopo sub die XIIII Kal. mai. sexies P.C. Basilii iun. V.C. indictione X’.” mvedi notam capituli 70 signatam “k”. nseq. transcriptio inscriptionis om. B et ideo ista hodie deperdita est.
78. asic B: pro secutus. bsic B: profecto errato exemplatoris scriptum.
79. asic B: pro exercitus. bsic B: pro caesi.
80. asic B: pro anaglipha. bsic B: fort. pro aculis; in marg. et in ras. al. man. add. potuit occulis. csic B: pro nostrae. dsic B: pro pondus.
81. asic B: pro eclesiae.
82. aex pulcra corr. B. bsic B: pro altera. c) qui nulum] sic B: fort. pro quod nullus. dsic B: pro multavit. esic B: pro Ecclesiae. fsic B: pro anima.
83. asic B: pro quae. bsic B: pro honorabiliter. c) psalentium presentia] sic B: pro psallentia in praesentia.


1) 14th of October, 546.
2) This seems to be an error: The homily in question was given on the second Sunday of Advent and it discussed the passage "Et erunt signa in sole, et luna, et stellis, et in terris pressura gentium prae confusione sonitus maris, et fluctuum" (Vulg., Luc. 21:25); this homily was edited as homilia prima in the collection of Saint Gregory's homilies (manuscripts circulated throughout the Middle Ages), and this is probably where the confusion arose from. Cf. Jacques-Paul Migne (ed.), "Sancti Gregorii Magni Romani pontificis XL homiliarum in evangelia libri duo," in Patrologia Latina, vol. 76: Sanctus Gregorius Magnus (Paris 1857), cols. 1075–81.
3) Vulg., Rom. 12:21.
4) Vulg., Luc. 21:19.
5) Circa 833.

Translation

Concerning holy Maximian, the 26th [bishop of Ravenna]

[69] Maximian, the twenty-sixth bishop. Of venerable stature, with a thin body, lean of face, bald of head, he had few hairs, grey eyes, and was adorned with all grace. He was not from this flock, but an alien sheep from the church of Pula, ordained as a deacon by its bishop.

[70] But I will explain why this foreign-born man held the episcopate of this city; I will not conceal it, but will publicly reveal it just as I heard it from those telling it from the distant past, and it is the truth beyond any doubt.
<The discovery of treasure> One day when Maximian was digging in the earth, when tonsa cesalis was first putting forth its seeds, he suddenly found a large vase filled with gold and many other kinds of riches. He, thinking to himself that it could not remain hidden, ordered a great cow to be brought and killed, and he commanded that its stomach, emptied of muck, be filled with gold coins. Likewise, he summoned the cobblers, who made foot coverings, and commanded them to produce great boots from the skins of goats, and he filled these with gold solidi. He brought the remainder with him when he went to the city of Constantinople and gave it to Emperor Justinian. When the emperor saw it, after thanking him he inquired searchingly if there was more. But Maximian, under oath, answered the emperor:

“By your health, lord, and by the salvation of your soul, I do not have more of it than what I lavished on stomach and boots.”

The emperor thought that he spoke of food for the body and coverings for the feet; Maximian of course was referring to that which he had hidden. Justinian considered what sort of reward he should give for such faith as Maximian had shown him.
<The consecration of holy Maximian as the archbishop of Ravenna> It happened at that time that Victor, bishop of this city of Ravenna, died, and the citizens of Ravenna, the priests together with people, went to the emperor, seeking the pallium for their candidate. After hearing them, the emperor ordered the petitioners to wait. Having considered the matter, he ordered blessed Maximian, the deacon from Pula, to be consecrated by Pope Vigilius in the city of Patras in Greece, on October 14 of the tenth indiction, five years after the consulship of Basilius the younger, in the forty-eighth year of Maximian’s life, and having given him the pallium sent him to Ravenna.
<The church of St. George> Since the Ravennate citizens did not want to receive Maximian so speedily, he waited outside the gates of St. Victor, not far from the stream that is called fossa Sconii, in the basilica of St. Eusebius, in the episcopal palace which the bishop Unimundus had built in the time of King Theodoric; and also in the episcopal palace of the church of St. George, which was built in the time of the Arians.
<The New or Valerian House> And the said episcopal palaces lasted until our own day, and were demolished almost twenty-six years ago, by the order of Bishop Valerius, from which he ordered a house to be built, which is now called the New House, or sometimes the Valerian House.

[71] Since the people, as I said, did not want to receive him, men in the bishop’s entourage wanted to send legates to the emperor reporting that his orders had been flouted, and that, persisting in their abominable pride, the Ravennate citizens did not want to receive their ordained bishop, and with the church widowed, the flock wandered hither and thither.
Most blessed Maximian did not agree with these men, but he overrode them with his words, saying:

“Cease, brothers; do not accuse others, do not rejoice in the ruin of another. What sort of shepherd am I, if I do not spare my sheep? Do you want me to tear them to pieces? That is not good advice. Leave them, there will be no evil through me. Let the will of the Lord be done. I beseech you, for a few days give them a truce.”

After a few days, he sent a faithful messenger from among his men; he called on one of the priests and one of the leaders of the city and invited them to lunch with him. When they came, he made merry with them, and after the food and drink, he gave them gifts from the gold that he had found before. Having made peace with them, he sent them back into the city of Ravenna with his blessing, and asked them to visit him often. And on the next day he sent out and invited other leaders, and acted as before, and did the same on the third day.
Then they discussed among themselves the things of this sort, and they said:

“What is it that we want to do? This man is good and wise. We plot injuries against him, but he does not wish to render evil to us for evil. We cannot be without pontiff and father. Behold the priests are straying, the people stumble, the church is declining. Let us rise at dawn, let us bring him into the city and worship his footsteps.”

Then, at the rise of dawn, they all went together as one man, and opening the gates of the city, with crosses and banners and flags and praises led him honorably into this city of Ravenna, and they kissed his feet and embellished the decorated streets of the city with various adornments. And all of the buildings were wreathed, there was happiness among the soldiers, and gladness among the private citizens, both the young and old rejoiced, those in the middle were glad. And they asked him to sit in the apse of the church and they heard mass from him, and they made it a day of solemnity along with great joy and everlasting happiness.

[72] After these things he was like a father with his sons toward his sheep.
<The monastery of St. Stephen> And he built from the foundations the church of St. Stephen, deacon and martyr, here in Ravenna, not far from the Ovilian gate; he enhanced it with wonderful size and furnished it most beautifully. <Since here, in the city of Ravenna, there is only one monastery called St. Stephen's, in which there are nuns, and by what can be seen it does not appear as such an edifice or of such precious things, and this monastery is next to the church of St. Andrew's that is commonly called the Gothic church, I believe that this monastery, the one mentioned here in this history, was next to the church of St. Barbatianus which is not far from the monastery and the church of St. Zacharias, just as I saw and as can be seen in a certain notarial instrument written by the hand of Morandus, a notary public, and which is in his records under the year 1296, day ___, month ___, on folio ___, and the chartulary belongs to the lords cardinals of the Church of Ravenna.>
And in the vaults of the apse his image is fixed in multicolored mosaic, and is surrounded by wonderful glasswork, and he established there many relics from the bodies of the saints, whose names you will find thus written:

“In honor of holy and most blessed first martyr Stephen, Bishop Maximian, servant of Christ, by God’s grace built this church from the foundations and dedicated it on December 11 in the fourteenth indiction, in the ninth year after the consulship of Basilius the younger.”

And he rejoiced in the Lord, who performed such good things for him as no man might be able to tell fully.
He placed here the relics of apostles and martyrs, namely St. Peter, St. Paul, St. Andrew, St. Zacharias, St. John the Baptist, St. John the Evangelist, St. James, St. Thomas, St. Matthew, St. Stephen, St. Vincent, St. Laurence, St. Quirinus, St. Florian, St. Emilian, St. Apollinaris, St. Agatha, St. Euphemia, St. Agnes, and St. Eugenia; may they pray for us. And in the triumphal arch of the apse you will find metrical verses, containing the following:

“The temple of Stephen shines, holy in relics and in name,
he who first performed the exceptional act of martyrdom.
The same palm is given to all for holy blood;
however, he benefits from it more who was earlier in time.
He himself now assisting your faith and your vow, great priest
Maximian has completed this work.
For the hand of man alone could not so soon have made such a hall from its foundation walls.
When the gleaming moon was new for the eleventh time,
the church which had been begun shines established in beautiful completion.”

At the sides of this basilica he added small monasteria, which all appear marvelously with new gold mosaics and various other stones fixed in plaster; and above the capitals of all the columns, the name of this Maximian is carved. In the monasterium on the men’s [south] side, you will find six mosaic letters; they lead the ignorant into error, for the knowledgeable understand that there is written MU.SI.VA.
[73] Some say that one day the bishop summoned the archiergatus, that is, the master of the work, and asked him why he had not finished the building of the said church. But the archiergatus made it known, saying:

“Because you, O our lord, had sailed to the region of Constantinople, cement and bricks were lacking, nor do we have enough stones to have been able to work.”

Then, at the order of the bishop, in one night so much building material was brought, and the suppliers prepared plaster and tiles, rocks and bricks, stones and wood, columns and stone slabs, gravel and sand, in one night, as I said, that they would hardly be able to fashion in eleven months.

[74] <The wood that is called Veštar in the territory of Istria> And during the reign of that most holy bishop, when a disagreement arose over the woods which go by name of Veštar, located in Istria, again he took himself to Constantinople, so that the presence of the Emperor Justinian might eliminate such strife. Both were by that time furnished with grey hairs; most bitterly together they began to mourn about all the things they remembered, cut off from youth and united in old age. Then this worthy emperor and augustus Justinian established an injunction for him about that forest, that it be perpetually and legally part of the holy church of Ravenna, which he had recognized it belonged to justly and rationally.

[75] <The building of the Tricollis completed by Maximian> In his reign he completed all the buildings of the Tricollis, and there he is depicted with his predecessors; if you want to read, looking up, you will find written thus:

“This younger Peter, following the commands of Christ,
displayed by his holy practices what He taught.
Also, he founded this citadel with wonderful structures;
he gave these monuments his name.
After his death, Aurelian bore the honors,
after him Ecclesius was bishop;
then was Ursicinus, Victor followed in order,
finally the youngest, Maximian, is here.
He was from Pula, a sincere deacon of Christ,
merciful in the law of God and good in faithfulness.
God himself adorned this man with the holy summit
and placed him as bishop over his church;
however, he knows that by his own deeds he did not merit
the apostolic summit, but by the faithfulness of God.”

[76] <The church of St. Mary in Pula> And he built the church of St. Mary which is called Formosa, in Pula, where he was a deacon, of wonderful beauty, and he decorated it with various stones. He built a house where the rector of that church lives when he is in this city, and gave all his wealth to the Ravennate church, which we possess up to today.
<The church of St. Andrew the Apostle> He decorated with all diligence the church of St. Andrew the apostle here in Ravenna, not far from the Hereulana region; having removed the old wooden columns made of nut trees, he filled the church with columns of proconnesian marble. Then he tried to bring the stolen body of that apostle to Ravenna.
When the emperor in Constantinople knew of this, he ordered blessed Maximian to come to Constantinople and to bring with him the venerable body of the apostle. The emperor, amused, said to him:

“Don’t be displeased, father, that one brother keeps Rome in first place, this one is to convey second place. The cities are both sisters, and the apostles are both brothers. I do not want to give him to you, since it is fitting that there be the body of an apostle where the imperial seat is.”

But most blessed Maximian said:

“Let it be done as you command; however I request that I with my priests might pass this night in psalmody over this holy body.”

And the emperor agreed at once.
<The beard of St. Andrew the Apostle> Then they spent the whole night in vigils, and after all things were completed, seizing a sword and saying a prayer, he cut off the beard of the apostle up to the chin. And from the remains of many other saints he took relics with the emperor’s agreement; and from there he returned to his own see.
And it is a true thing, brothers, that if he had buried the body of blessed Andrew, brother of Peter the prince, here, the Roman popes would not thus have subjugated us.

[77] <He consecrated the church of St. Apollinaris in Classe and the church of St. Vitalis the Martyr and the church of Archangel Michael> He consecrated the church of the blessed Bishop Apollinaris located in Classe and of the blessed martyr Vitalis in Ravenna and of the blessed archangel Michael here in Ravenna, which Bacauda built with Julian the banker of blessed memory, in the region which is called Ad Frigiselo. And there you will find in the vault of the apse the following:

“Having obtained the beneficences of archangel Michael, Bacauda and Julian have made from the foundations and dedicated [this church] on May 7, the fourth year after the consulship of the most illustrious consul Basilius the younger, in the eighth indiction.”

<The tomb of Bacauda> And, as some assert, this Bacauda was the son-in-law of the said Julian, and rests in a stone sarcophagus not far from that church of the archangel in the Tower of Bacauda.
And in the apse of San Vitale the image of this same Maximian and of the emperor and empress are beautifully created in mosaic. However long we could tell of the goodness of this holy man, the time for narration is lacking to me. He labored in all things more than the other bishops his predecessors.
In his reign was built near my house the barracks of the regiment which is called the First Flag, not far from the golden milestone, and we find his name stamped on the tiles thus: “Maximian bishop of Ravenna,” which I have seen and read.
<Julian the banker, the founder of the churches of St. Apollinaris in Classe and St. Vitalis> And in the narthexes of the churches St. Apollinaris and St. Vitale you will find tablets written with majuscule letters containing the following:

“Julian the banker built the basilica of the blessed priest Apollinaris from the foundations, authorized by the most blessed Bishop Ursicinus, and decorated and dedicated it, with the blessed Bishop Maximian consecrating it on May 9, in the twelfth indiction, the eighth year after the consulship of Basilius.”

In the narthex of blessed Vitalis you will find thus:

“Julian the banker built the basilica of the blessed martyr Vitalis from the foundations, authorized by the most blessed Bishop Ecclesius, and decorated and dedicated it, with the most reverend Bishop Maximian consecrating it on April 19, in the tenth indiction, in the sixth year after the consulship of Basilius.”

<The body of blessed Archbishop Probus> This holy man preserved the body of blessed Probus with the other bodies of the holy bishops with aromatics and placed them fittingly, and on the facade of that church he decorated the images of blessed Probus and Eleuchadius and Calocerus with various mosaics, and under their feet you will find . . .

[78] Now this most blessed man had previously sailed in eastern parts, as he says in his volumes, saying:

“In Alexandria there is no external cause of evil, but because the race of men is fierce, there is always seditious unrest, civil war arises among them; aroused, not on account of virtue, nor for defense, but for the sake of slaughter and the killing of citizens, they all killed their prefect within the church, because previously some others had likewise killed their bishop, accusing him of heresy. When this was discovered, the emperor, moved to anger, ordered the city to be completely overthrown. Finally, having sent another prefect by the name of Laudicius, he crucified forty men through each region in that city. But then Dioscorus, bishop of that same city, labored hard, and visibly placed his own life for his sheep; and selected monks hastened from the wilderness to the emperor and pleaded indulgence for the excess of the citizens. Then the emperor gave in to the priests and from that time forward ordered them to beware of such things. Timothy succeeded this bishop in Alexandria, whom I saw administering well in his city when I sailed to the East. <On the great earthquake of Nazarba> But not much later the city of Nazarba in Cilicia fell to earthquake, in which they say that more than thirty thousand men perished.”

These are the words of the bishop. After blessed Jerome and Orosius and other historians he worked on chronicles, and following them, through their different books about most noble leaders, not only emperors but kings and prefects, he wrote his own chronicle.

[79] <The battle between the Goths and the soldiers [of the Eastern Roman Empire]> In his reign a battle was fought between the Goths and the soldiers of the army of Narses on October 1 in Campania; and the Goths were slaughtered, and there were many dead bodies of Gothic men.
<Theia, the king of the Goths, is killed> And Teia, king of the Goths, was killed by Narses. And he returned in peace and came to Lucca, whence he expelled the Goths in the month of September. And the city of Imola was restored by the prefect Antiochus. And again the said Narses came to Ravenna with great victory; then he went to Rome, and he proceeded to Campania to the camp of Cumae and remained there.
<The heresy of Manichaeans arises in Ravenna> After these events, however, the heresy of the Manichaeans arose in the city of Ravenna, which the orthodox Christians overcame, they threw [them] out of the city, they stoned them in the place that is called Fossa Sconii, next to the river, and they died in their sins, and evil was cast out of Ravenna.
<A red sign in the sky> After the third year a red sign appeared in the sky on the eleventh day of the month of November; and Pope Pelagius died on the third day of the month of March. Then Lord Narses with his army proceeded to Rome.
<Many signs in the sky> And in that time there were many signs and prodigies around Ravenna, so that many put marks upon their property and homes and vessels, so that they might be recognized again later; and visions appeared to many during the day, like men speaking with them face to face.
<Verona is captured by the Ravennites> And they fought against the citizens of Verona, and the city of Verona was captured by the armies on the twentieth day of the month of July.
<War of battling men in the sky that was mentioned by Gregory in the homilies on the Gospel on the First Sunday of Advent> And another great and terrible sign was seen, behold in the air as if men were fighting among themselves, brandishing weapons as if in battle, on July 25, in the third hour of the day, on a Monday; and after this many were terrified.
It is now time to close this reading, so that tomorrow we might hear what follows.

[80] And he made two small vessels for holding chrism, one of which had a weight of fourteen pounds, of wonderful sculpted workmanship, but it recently perished before its time, in the reign of Archbishop Petronax; the other remains up to the present, most beautifully made, on which is read:

“The servant of Christ, Archbishop Maximian, made this vessel for chrism for the use of the faithful.”

He ordered an altar cloth made of the most precious fine linen, the like of which we have never been able to see, made with embroidery, containing the whole story of our Savior. On the holy day of Epiphany it is placed over the altar of the Ursiana church. But he did not finish the whole thing; his successor completed one part. Who has been able to see its like? It is not possible to otherwise appraise these images or beasts or birds which were made there, than to say that they all are living in the flesh. The images of this Maximian are excellently made in two places, one great and the other small, but there is no difference between the greater and the smaller. On the smaller there are letters inscribed, containing thus:

“Magnify the Lord with me, who has raised me from the dung.”

And he made another altar cloth from gold, on which are all his predecessors; he ordered the images to be woven in gold. And he made a third, and a fourth with pearls, on which it is read:

“Spare, O Lord, spare thy people, and remember me, a sinner, whom you have raised from dung into Your Kingdom.”

He ordered a great cross of gold to be made and he decorated it with most precious gems and pearls, jacinths and amethysts and sard and emeralds, and in the middle part of the cross, set in gold, he placed some of the wood of our holy redeeming cross, where the body of the Lord hung. And it is a very great weight of gold.

[81] And he had all the ecclesiastical books, that is, two bibles, beautifully written, which he read long and most cautiously and left to us without error, which we use up to today. And at the end of the Gospels and the letters of the apostles, if you want to investigate, you will find his letters reporting:

“I have emended most cautiously with Augustine’s comments, and according to the Gospels which blessed Jerome sent to Rome and arranged for his followers, only that they should not be corrupted by illiterate or evil scribes.”

And he produced missals for the whole circle of the year and for all the saints; for you will find everything there without doubt, for ordinary days and for Lent, or whatever pertains to the rite of the church, a great volume wonderfully written.
We have few of his writings; they were taken to Rome, and they are known there, the Romans who see the twelve books written in one volume.

[82] We have said a few things out of many; you will find more about him than you have read here.
He never ravaged his sheep, never hurt them, never struck them, but refreshed them with words, fed them with food, warned the wandering, recalled the errant, collected the dispersed, ministered to the needy, condoled the one in trouble. I marvel at how this one, who was from another see, thus behaved with his sheep, that no one ever raised up any word against him. Now that we have pastors from among ourselves, after they obtain the see, they want to devour us with their teeth, nor do they know how to have any mercy. They seek secular heights rather than heavenly glory; they do not participate with their sheep, but they devour the possessions of the church alone; and fed from this wealth become such as do not serve the church, but rather depopulate it, nor do they pour out prayers to God for the soul of him who disposed of these possessions. Then these sheep daily cry in mourning to the Lord, saying:

“Free us, Lord, from the captivity of the teeth of our shepherd, since he has not the place of a mercenary, but the cruelty of a wolf; he consumes us all in aggrandizing his own possessions.”

This most blessed Maximian never did such things, but with kindness he humiliated the hearts of his enemies, that he might fulfill what is written, “Be not overcome by evil, but overcome evil by good,” and again, “In your patience you shall possess your souls.”
He died on February 22 and was buried in the church of St. Andrew the Apostle next to the altar, where he had placed the beard of the said apostle; but now in our times he was buried next to the seat of the church of that apostle.

[83] In the fifteenth year of Archbishop Petronax, when we were each urging him with words that the said body of blessed Maximian should be brought from under the earth and placed in an elevated place, on a certain day attending to it itself, he ordered all us priests to hasten together with him to the church of blessed Andrew; with a prayer made in our hearts, he ordered the cover slab to be lifted up by the workmen, but doing it carelessly, it was broken.
Rather angry, the bishop began to revile the workmen; then he said to the tenth priest in order of the see, by the name of Agnellus who is called Andreas – who was at that time filled with the skills of all the arts –:

“Stand here, tell the workers what they should do, lest the sarcophagus or stone which is placed over it be broken.”

With the stone laid aside, the workers prepared all things according to the order of the priest, and the stone with which the sarcophagus was closed was raised, the bones of blessed Maximian appeared, under water, for the vessel was full of water.
And as we saw this, we began to wail loudly together with our bishop, and wailing we said to each other:

“Where are your sheep, O shepherd Maximian, where your flock, where your people, which you have acquired for the Lord? Where the advice, where the sweet words, where the holy preaching, where your doctrines? If we should say, ‘you are our shepherd,’ would we thus cast away the one who is present? Behold you are both our shepherds together, both you who lie dead, and he who wails, to whom we owe obedience. Your example will bind our flesh. Behold we need and search for you; how much more beloved must you have been to all those who knew you!”

After we had all wept long and bitterly, satiated with grief, a small bronze vessel was brought to us, which in the vulgar tongue we call a siculus, and siculi were drawn out full of the water which was in the sarcophagus over the bones of blessed Maximian, 115 in number, all of which I myself counted in front of everyone with my own mouth. All the raised bones were wrapped in a shroud, which was on the altar of the blessed apostle Andrew, and with the shroud tied up, the bishop marked the seal from the side of his ring. After this the sarcophagus was cleaned up without a scratch and washed; we replaced it carefully.
All the whole bones that we found were thin, but long, and were located exactly in their places as if they had been separated from the flesh almost for a year; none were missing, except one tooth on the right side. Therefore the bones, washed with choice wine, honorably embalmed in spices, with chanting of psalms, in the presence of the bishop, all were placed in the same sarcophagus and with great grief were lovingly enclosed within the tomb. To those of us who saw it, for many days there was such fear and trembling, as if blessed Maximian himself stood in our sight. 
He sat __ years, __ months, __ days.

[The translation, slightly modified by the editor, comes from Deborah Mauskopf Deliyannis (trans.), The Book of the Pontiffs of the Church of Ravenna, Medieval Texts in Translation (Washington D.C. 2004), pp. 184–97. Prof. Mauskopf Deliyannis generously gave her consent to publish her translation on Fontes Istre medievalis and for that we wholeheartedly thank her.]

Selected Bibliography
Giuseppe Bovini, “L'opera di Massimiano da Pola a Ravenna,” Antichità Altoadriatiche 2: Aquileia e l'Istria (1972): pp. 147–65.
Gianluca Pilara, “Massimiano, santo,” in Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani, vol. 71 (Rome 2008), online.
Editor's Notes

Maximian of Pula, the (arch)bishop of Ravenna (the first ever mention of an archbishop of Ravenna comes from a document in which the very Maximian is mentioned as such, cf. Jan Olof Tjäder, Die nichtliterarischen lateinischen Papyri Italiens aus der Zeit 445-700 (Lund 1954), p. 306), is one of the central personalities of Istrian Late Antiquity/Early Middle Ages.

Maximian was born in Pula, as attested by the hereby edited passage of the Book of the Pontiffs of the Church of Ravenna, the main primary source on Maximian's life and work. The factoid that he was born in Veštar, a place between Rovinj and Pula, is based on chap. 74 of the same text, but the author never states that this Vistrum was his place of birth, simply that he managed to obtain the rights from Emperor Justinian I over the wood in Veštar for the Church of Ravenna.

Maximian is definitely the person who built the foundations of what would later be known as the "Fief of St. Apollinaris" in Istria: the temporal possession of the Church of Ravenna in the district of Pula. The fact that Maximian erected the church of Santa Maria Formosa in Pula, together with a "rector's house" for the administration of the patrimony of his Church further corroborates this interpretation. Moreover, as a distinguished ecclesiastic openly enjoying the favor of the imperial court and the emperor himself during the fateful "Schism of the Three Chapters" (see more here), there were practical political reasons why Justinian I would want to favor the Church of Ravenna under Maximian and facilitate the growth of its patrimony and power in Istria.

The interpretation that Maximian also built St. Andrew's monastery on an island next to Pula is conjectural; the contents of Maximian's donation charter (see the edition here), the only source linking this (arch)bishop to St. Andrew's monastery in Pula, only attest that Maximian endowed the institution, not that he was also its founder.

Moreover, there are absolutely no indications in the primary sources that Maximian founded St. Andrew's monastery on the "Red Island" by Rovinj (first mentioned in 858, the edition of the source is forthcoming), allegedly next to the nowadays submerged island of Cissa (on this so-called "Istrian Atlantis," see more here).

Archeological evidence, however, points to two, maybe three 6th-century religious edifices in Istria, all dedicated to St. Andrew: the two already mentioned monasteries, one in the island next to Pula, the other on the "Red Island" next to Rovinj; and another monastery in Betiga next to Barbariga (also in the vicinity of Pula), possibly also dedicated to St. Andrew's. Cf. Branko Marušić and Jaroslav Šašel, "De la cella trichora au complexe monastique de St. André à Betika entre Pula et Rovinj," Arheološki vestnik 37 (1986): pp. 307–42.

The story of Maximian and the building of St. Andrew's churches is further complicated by the two poems composed by Venantius Fortunatus in the mid-6th century celebrating a bishop Vitalis of Ravenna, the builder of the Church of St. Andrew (see the sources here and here). Since there was no Vitalis who was the bishop of Ravenna in the 6th century, there are interpretations that equate this persona with none other than Maximian (see the discussion here).

Is Maximian somehow responsible for the construction of all these religious edifices in Istria, including no less than three monasteries dedicated to St. Andrew? The written primary sources only attest to Maximian's decorating the church of St. Andrew in Ravenna (chap. 76) and, based on his very partially preserved donation charter, endowing the monastery of St. Andrew on an island next to Pula (see the donation here).

How to Cite
First citation: Josip Banic (ed.), Fontes Istrie medievalis, vol. 1: A seculo VI usque ad 803, doc. 546_LPR, fontesistrie.eu/546_LPR (last access: date).
Subsequent citations: FIM, 1: doc. 546_LPR.
Facsimile

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