1077_HP

Era
Vol. 2: A 804 usque ad 1077
Date
4th of March, 1077
Place
Regestum

King Henry IV confirms the jurisdictions and immunities enjoyed by the Bishopric of Poreč.

Source
A copy from 1286 authorized by a notary public that was once in the archive in Vienna, but that was lost already in 1937. The MGH editors used two modern transcriptions of this lost copy made by Wilhelm Wattenbach and Georg Friedrich Pertz (not consulted) = B.
Poreč, Biskupijski arhiv, Liber iurium episcopalium I, fols. 20v-21r (16th-century copy) = C.
Edition
Dietrich von Gladiss - Alfred Gawlik (eds.), Heinrici IV. diplomata, Monumenta Germaniae historica, Diplomata regum et imperatorum Germaniae, vol. 6/2 (Hannover 1941-1978), doc. 290, pp. 379-380.
Text in petite is identical to Otto II's confirmation charter issued to the Bishopric of Poreč in 983 (see the document here).
Transcription

In nomine Sancte et Individue Trinitatis.

Henricus divina favente clementia Francorum et Longabardorum rex.

Si Ecclesiarum Dei curam gerimus easque diligere studuerimus, nostri imperii fastigium augmentari minime ambigimus.

Quocirca omnium sancte Dei Ecclesie fidelium nostrorumque presentium scilicet ac futurorum noverit universitas, qualiter * Alemarus sancte Parentine Ecclesie episcopus nostram postulavit clementiam, quatinus nos pro Dei amore nostreque anime remedio nostra preceptali auctoritate omnia predia sue Ecclesie, que antea a nostris antecessoribus imperatoribus, regibus pro suarum animarum remedio prefate Ecclesie donaverunt, qua in basilica Sancti Beatum corpus Mauri requiescit, sive que ab aliquibus Deo devotis fidelibus data sunt, vel que danda erunt, confirmare et corroborare dignaremur.

Cuius dignis postulationibus aures nostre pietatis inclinantes pretaxate Ecclesiae predia nominative:
[1] Montana, 
[2] Rosarium, 
[3] Nigrianum, 
[4] Turrim, que est supra piscationem None, 
[5] et
* Cervare,
[6] et Medelanum,
[7] et castrum Pisinum,
[8]
et illud, quod a * nostris antecessoribus largitum est, videlicet Ruvignum,
[9]
et quantum ad Episcopatum sancte Parentine Ecclesie donatum est, scilicet in loco qui dicitur Duo Castella et Valles
cum omnibus pertinentiis
* iuste et legaliter ad predictum episcopatum pertinentibus nec non villis, terris, campis, vineis, pratis, aquis aqnarumque docursibus, molendinis, piscationibus, venationibus, montibus, planitiebus, vallis cum omnibus rebus mobilibus et immobilibus que dici et nominari possunt, seu in quocumque loco prenominatus episcopatus terram habet, per hoc nostrum preceptum confirmamus eidem episcopo Alemaro suisque successoribus et corroboramus.

Precipientes denique iubemus, ut nullus dux, patriarcha, archiepiscopus, episcopus, marchio, comes, vicecomes nullaque regni nostri magna vel parva persona pretaxatum episcopum suosque successores de omnibus predictis rebus molestare temptet nec ad ulla placita hominibus supra terram sancte Parentine Ecclesie residentibus, qui ab episcopo reclamationem habent, sine advocato episcopi nullam contrarietatem faciant nec invite ducantur nisi ante presentiam episcopi sine legali iudicio, sed liceat eidem presuli suisque succcssoribus quiete, * pacifice cuncta sua predia tenere et firmiter possidere omnium hominum contradictione penitus remota.

Si quis igitur huius nostre pagine violator fuerit, quod minime credimus, sciat se compositurum auri boni libras mille, medietatem camere nostre et medietatem prefato presuli suisque successoribus.

Quod, ut verius credatur diligentiusque ab omnibus observetur, * manu propria * roborantes sigillo nostro * insigniri iussimus.

Signum domni Heinrici (SM) invictissimi regis.

Gregorius cancellarius vice Hiltholphi archiepiscopi recognovi.

Data IIII nonas martii anno Dominice incarnationis millesimo sexagesimo, indictione XIII, regni vero domni Heinrici tertii regis anno XXI.

Actum Verone.

Feliciter. Amen.

Mapped Toponyms

Selected Bibliography
Lujo Margetić, "Iz pazinske prošlosti (u povodu tisućljeća prvog spomena Pazina),” in Istra i Kvarner: Izbor studija (Rijeka 1996), pp. 147-154."
Editor's Notes

The charter is almost a verbatim replica of the Otto II's 983 confirmation charter (see the document here).

The charter, however, presents great difficulties in determining its authenticity and dating.

First, the document is only preserved as a later copy, the oldest of which is the 1286 notarial document that is nowadays considered lost (it was lost already in 1937 when the MGH editors of Henry IV's diplomata prepared their monumental edition).

This 1286 copy (B in this edition) differs from the 16th-century copy in Liber iurium episcopalium I (C in this edition) in several important places in the charter's eschatocol.

Namely, both copies date the charter to the 4th of March ("IV nonas martii"), but B has the anno Domini dating unfinished ("anno Dominice incarnationis millesimo") and the 13th indiction, whereas C has the anno Domini dating complete and stating the year 1060 ("anno Dominice incarnationis millesimo sexagesimo"), but without the indiction. Both B and C date it to the 21st year of Henry III's reign and both have it issued in Verona.

Taking all of the eschatocol's elements into consideration, one arrives at only one plausible solution: the Henry III refers to a monarch who reigned from 1054 to 1105 as the king of the Romans and from 1056 to 1105 as the king of the Lombards – that Henry is customarily referred to in scholarship as Henry IV (because Henry I had not been crowned emperor). Thus, the 21st year of his kingship corresponds either to year 1075 or 1077. The 13th indiction corresponds to the year 1075.

However, Henry IV was not in Verona in the March of 1075; he was in fact in Germany throughout that year.

In the March of 1077, however, Henry IV was indeed in Verona where he issued four charters to various recipients in the Regnum Italicum, including this one to the Bishopric of Poreč (cf. docs. 287-290 in MGH DD H IV, pp. 374-380). Out of these four, two (docs. 287-288) are dated anno Domini 1077, 15th indiction, 26th year of Henry's appointment as the king of the Romans ("anno ordinationis Heinrici quarti regis XXVI"), and the 24th year of his kingship (referring to him as the king of Lombards, "regni vero XXIV"). One document (doc. 287) even refers to the king as Henry III. Three documents were reviewed by Gregory, the bishop of Vercelli (doc. 289 lacks the formula recognitionis and the dating).

Even here, however, the dating elements do not add up: 15th indiction indeed concurs with the year 1077, but the years of reign result in 1080. However, it seems that all the documents reviewed by the chancellor Gregory (cf. docs. 287-293) have the same mistake, with the sole exception being the privilege to the Bishopric of Poreč! The years of Henry's reign were correctly calculated only by chancellor Gebhard of Prague (cf doc. 295-296) who dated the documents anno Domini 1077, 15th indiction, 23rd year of ordination and 21st year of kingship - finally, all the dating elements concurring with each other.

Thus, the dating of this Henry's charter to the Bishopric of Poreč must be very flawed and very peculiar as neither the anno Domini dating, nor the indiction corresponds to the year 1077, but recognitor Gregory's standard mistake of erroneously calculating Henry IV's years of reign was somehow not made only in this document. The editors of MGH proposed a creative, but informed solution: the original charter (nowadays lost) featured either a lacuna in the dating by anno Domini, hence the incomplete phrase in B "anno Dominice incarnationis millesimo"). This incomplete phrase was then carelessly "completed" by the 16th-century copyist of C. Finally, the indiction XIII was simply erroneously copied instead of the original XV which would correspond to 1077. All of these creative solutions still do not fix the problem of Henry IV's years of reign which are correct, but based on the recognitor of the document, should be written erroneously.

All of this leads one to conclude that this particular charter is forgery, drawn up in the 13th century in the chancellery of Bishop Boniface and that the 1286 "copy" was indeed the "original" charter.

How to Cite
First citation: Josip Banic (ed.), Fontes Istrie medievalis, vol. 2: A 804 usque ad 1077, doc. 1077_HP, fontesistrie.eu/1077_HP (last access: date).
Subsequent citations: FIM, 2: doc. 1077_HP.