1024_PG

Era
Vol. 2: A 804 usque ad 1077
Date
December of 1024
Place
Regestum

Pope John XIX confirms the possessions of the Patriarchate of Grado.

Source
A = Venice, Archivio di Stato di Venezia, Miscellanea atti diplomatici e privati, busta 1, doc. 15bis.
Previous Editions
Harald Zimmermann (ed.), Papsturkunden 896–1046, vol. 2 (Vienna 1985), doc. 562, pp. 1061–1063.
FIM Edition
Diplomatic edition based on A; parts taken verbatim from the charter model, doc. 974_PG, are given in petite font.
Transcription

(SC) ‡Iohannes episcopus servus servorum Dei.‡

Convenit apostolatui nostro digne petentibus benibola compassione seccurrere et poscentium animis alacri devotione inpertire assensum. Ex hoc henim lucri potissimum premium a conditore omnium Deo procul dubio promerebimur, dum piis petitionibus annuentes ea, que distorta vel iniuste sublata sunt, nostro pyo fuerint sine dubio moderamine restituta atque directa.

Quapropter omnium sancte Dei Ecclesie ovium nostrorumque presentium scilicet ac futurorum filiorum comperiat magnitudo, quia ‡Urso‡ sancte Gradensis ecclesie prudentissimus patriarcha, apostolica adiens limina, nostram deprecatus est paternitatem, quatinus privilegia nostrorum decessorum de statu sue ecclesie renobaremus atque confirmaremus sive de rebus ac possessionibus sui Patriarchatus, que infra Venetie vel Italici Regni dicionem seu in Comitatu Istriensi consistere noscuntur, videlicet, ut proprias res suas in Rivoalto, in Metamauco, in Equilo, in Civitate Nova, in confinio sue iam dicte Gradensis civitatis seu in Mureiano vel * Gaiaco, * in Zemulis, partim in territorio Aquilegie et in marino termino, saltim in Istria, in Tergeste, in Iustinopoli, Pirano, Civitate Nova, Parentio, Ragunio, Pola atque in castello Sancti Georgii ac reliquorum locorum, tam infra quam extra, seu * Bononia vel * Romania, Ravenna, Ausimo, Pensauro, sive in quibuscumque locis Italici Regni seu Venetie habere ac possidere sui predecessores visi sunt, absque cuiusque contrarietate seu refragatione ipsi suique successores retinere quivissent, quemammo[dum nostror]um temporibus * predecessorum per privilegia scriptis et possessionibus ipsorumque decessores possiderunt.

Cuius petitioni, ut nobis divina suffragatio habundantius prosit, libenter annuentes et iuste decernentes, hoc apostolatus nostri privilegium fieri decrevimus.

Per quod ex apostolica apostolorum principis Petri et nostra, cuius vicem gerimus, auctoritate precipimus atque interdicimus, ut nullus sub nostri apostolici regiminis iuraa degentium *, patriarcha, archiepiscopus, episcopus, prepositus, decanus, vicedominus, rex, dux, marchio, comes, vicecomes * aut aliquis exactor alicuius rei, tam clericorum quam laicorum, nec ullus iudex publicus vel quilibet ex iudicaria potestate in monasteriis, in ecclesiis, in litoribus, in canalibus sive in paludibus, in vicis vel in villis ac prediis vel possessionibus predicte sancte metropolitane Gradensis pya veneratione venerande ecclesie *, seu in ecclesiis baptismalibus, saltim * in plebibus, precipue Piriani, Humagi scilicet et Sitiole, que hab eadem sancte Gradensis ecclesia semper iuste possessa fuisse, nostro nostrorumque decessorum decreto decernentis, vel in quibuslibet pagis patriisque * territoriisque * infra ditionem totius Italici Regni vel in finibus Venetie possidet, seu in confinio eiusdem sancte civitatis Gradensis, quolibet more voluerit divina pietas augere et quicquid per scripta, per regalia precepta seu per possessionem prephata sancta Gradensis venerabilis ecclesia digne retinuisse ac retinere, possedisse ac possidere decernitur, vim aliquam vel invasionem ingerere presumat, aut aliquo modo infestare, aut molestiam inferre aliquam ipsi ipsiusque successoribus in ecclesiis sibi pertinentibus seu in familiis, in colonis, servis vel mancipiis, advenis * ac reliquis qui super eiusdem ecclesie terras manent, sed omni iure et tenore sancte Gradensis venerabilis ecclesie a patriarchis nunc et semper ibidem degentibus, libere, que prelibavimus, absque ullius infestatione retineantur ac perpetue possideantur.

Igitur, ut nullius sub nostri apostolatus regimine degentis obstaculum vel tergiversatio * contra hoc nostre preceptionis privilegium nescienter neglegenterque fiat, cuncta que * pretulimus recapitulando precipimus *, ut quicquit in prenominatis locis vel civitatibus Rivoalto et Metamauco, Equilo, Civitate Nova, in Fines, in Bibones vel in confinio iam dicte sancte metropolitane civitatis, in Tergeste, Iustinopoli seu in predictis plebibus: Pirani scilicet Humagi, Sizole, vel in locis ad easdem plebes pertinentibus, decimas ac primitias ceterasque offersiones in illis oblatas, vel in Spariensi castro in quibusve territoriis, domibus, curtibus, locis desertis, munitionibus, plateis, fossis, stagnis, fontibus, aquis aquarumque decursibus, insulis, portibus, vinetis, holibetis, molendinis, precipue in molendino Regiani, piscationibus, silvis, venationibus, arbustis, salectis, carectis, saltibus, paludibus, salinis, canalibus, litoribus, pratis, pascuis, ripis, rupibus, alpibus, collibus, montibus, opificibus, campis, tam cultis quam incultis, mancipiis, gazis, et quitquit Gradensis venerabilis ecclesia Patriarchatus possessiones scriptione vel per apostolica privilegia vel per inperialia precepta, quocumque modo visus est, retinere iuste ac retinuisse, [ob]serv[ar]e sub nostri apostolatus regimine commorantium, quemammodum supra [retulimus] studeant.

Si quis contra huius nostre preceptionis privilegium agere presumpserit aut presumentibus consenserit aut fautor extiterit et non potius observare in integrum studuerit, sed nostre apostolice hanc preceptionis interdictionem transgredi presumpserit, sciat se auctoritate beati Petri apostolorum principis et celorum regni clavigeri nostroque anathematis vinculo esse innodatum et a Regno Dęi alienatum atque cum diabolo et eius atrocissimis pompis transgressorem sanctorum patrum canonica traditione deputatum, quoniam scriptum est: “Terminos patrum nostrorum nulla auctoritate inlicite temeritatis transgredi presumi,”1 et quia oportunitatis exigit ratio, protervos ac transgressores canonice correbtionis debere freno constringi, illius insuper spiritali iaculo perdat animam, cuius temporali gladio Malchus amisit auriculam2.

Scriptum per manus Georgii scriniarii sancte Romane ecclesie in mense decembris, indictione octava.

(SC) (BV)

Critical apparatus

asic A: pro iure, sicut em. Zimmermann.


1Vulg., Prov. 22, 28.
2Vulg., Ioh. 18, 10.

Medieval Recollections

The charter would be used as a document model for the following papal privileges issued to the Patriarchate of Grado:

Pope Benedict IX’s privilege issued to the Patriarchate of Grado in April of 1044 – to be edited here presently.
 

Selected Bibliography
Paul Fridolin Kehr, “Rom und Venedig bis ins 12. Jahrhundert,” Quellen und Forschungen aus italienischen Archiven und Bibliotheken 19 (1927): p. 88.
Roberto Cessi, Venezia ducale, vol. 1: Duca e popolo (Venice 1940), p. 408.
Daniela Rando, Una chiesa di frontiera: Le istituzioni ecclesiastiche veneziane nei secoli VI–XII (Bologna 1994), pp. 75–77.
Giuseppe Gullino, “Orseolo, Orso,” in Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani, vol. 79 (Rome 2013), online.
Athanasius Kapsalis, “ Η αναγνώριση των μητροπολιτικών δικαιωμάτων του Grado από τη σύνοδο του Λατερανού (1044)” [The recognition of the metropolitan rights of Grado by the Lateran Council (1044)], The Eusebius Lab International Working Papers Series 16 (2020): pp. 20–24 (with numerous interpretative errors).
Editor's Notes

The papal confirmation privilege issued to Patriarch Urso of the church of Grado resulted from the Roman Synod of 1024, whereby the Patriarchate of Grado was recognized as a metropolitan see of the Venetian part of the former ecclesiastical province of Aquileia and not merely a subject parish of the Patriarchate of Aquileia. See more on this Synod, together with an exhaustive bibliography, in Detlev Jasper (ed.), Die Konzilien Deutschlands und Reichsitaliens 1002–1059, Monumenta Germaniae historica, Concilia 8 (Hannover 2010), doc. 5, pp. 59–68.

The papal privilege is modelled upon the Ottonian confirmation charter issued to Patriarch Vitale in 974 (doc. 974_PG), repeating verbatim the locations where the Patriarchate of Grado has secular possessions and estates. As Kehr correctly noted, neither the Synod of 1024 nor the accompanying confirmation privilege recognized the church of Grado as the metropolitan see of Istrian bishoprics. Thus, Kapsalis (cited above) makes numerous errors when he interprets this privilege as the official recognition of Grado’s metropolitan jurisdictions in Istria (along with many other interpretative errors, such as reading in toponym Bononia (Bologna) the Istrian hamlet Banjole south of Pula, or interpreting Umag as part of the Kingdom of Croatia).

For the reading of Istrian toponyms, see doc. 974_PG; the locations that appear in this papal privilege but not in the Ottonian confirmation of 974 is only Sitiola/Sizola, identified as Sečovlje/Sicciole in the district of Piran.

Even though the privilege was definitively a victory for the Patriarchate of Grado, it was very short lived. Backed by the newly elected monarch of the Holy Roman Empire, Conrad II, Aquileian Patriarch Poppo struck back. Thus, during the Synod of Rome of 1027 these decrees were reversed and the patriarch of Aquileia was pronounced as the sole metropolitan over all the bishoprics of the former ecclesiastical province of Aquileia, including both Istrian as well as Venetian bishoprics, with Grado being relegated to the status of a mere parish (see the synodal decree edited here as doc. 1027_SR). Yet, even these decrees proved impossible to enact, leaving the issue of the two opposing patriarchates in the northern Adriatic wide open and without a clear victor.

How to Cite
First citation: Josip Banić (ed.), Fontes Istrie medievalis, vol. 2: A 804 usque ad 1077, doc. 1024_PG, fontesistrie.eu/1024_PG (last access: date).
Subsequent citations: FIM, 2: doc. 1024_PG.
Facsimile
Image Source and Info

The publication of the facsimile of A (Venice, Archivio di Stato di Venezia, Miscellanea atti diplomatici e privati, busta 1, document number 15bis) is granted free of charge by Archivio di Stato di Venezia by way of the Ministerial Decree No. 108 of March 21, 2024 – esente dal pagamento del canone di concessione perché le riproduzioni di beni culturali e il loro riuso sono destinati alle pubblicazioni liberamente accessibili da chiunque senza il pagamento di un prezzo (cosiddetto open access). We wholeheartedly thank our friends and colleagues for their support of open access scholarship.

Photo by the editor.

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