Era
Vol. 1: A seculo VI usque ad 803
Date
24th of March, 543 (13th Century Forgery)
Regestum

Euphrasius, the bishop of Poreč, imposes a variety of taxes, including the tithe and the ecclesiastical quartese (the quarter of the tithe) on the citizens of his bishopric. The document aimed at proving the episcopal lordship over the city of Poreč and fixing the tributes due to the Church of Poreč, forged in the first half of the 13th century (before 1222).

Source
The "original" is lost, as is the 1222 copy reported in the later transcripts; the text survives in three manuscript traditions, all of them stemming from the Libri iurium episcopalium ecclesie Parentine, three manuscripts from the late 15th/early 16th century:
C = Poreč, Biskupijski arhiv [Diocesan archive], Iurium episcopalium ecclesie Parentine, liber I, fols. 42-43; 15th century copy of a thirteenth century copy of an alleged 6th century original.
Previous Editions
Bernardo Benussi, "Privilegio eufrasiano," Atti e memorie della Società istriana di archeologia e storia patria 8/1-2 (1892): pp. 49-51 (based on C).
FIM Edition
Adapted replica of Benussi's edition as the direct consultation of Libri iurium has still not been permitted to the editor; the paragraph numbering is introduced by the editor.
Transcription

In nomine Patris et Filii et Spiritus Sancti, amen.

Imperante Flaviano Romanorum imperatore triumphatore augusto, anno imperii eius XVI, die vero XX°IIII mensis martii, indictione VI, feliciter.

Nos quidem Dei gratia Eufrasius Parentine ecclesie presula cunctorum pupillorum, viduarum et orphanorum pastor in ecclesia beate Marie virginis et sancti Mauri martiris, qui pro Christi nomine martirii palmam non recusavit accipere, residentibus nobiscum Constantio et Laurentio directis ab urbe Roma a Flaviano imperatore insimul nobis iubentibus et volentibus, presente clero et populo Parentino et Claudio archidiacono et Maximo archipresbitero et Andrea sancti Ioannis abbate atque Ioanne magistro militum advocato ecclesie sancte Marie et sancti Mauri et aliorum quamplurium, volumus, precipimus, statuimus ut:

[1] populus Parentinus maiores et minores insimul etiam et Parentini pro eo, quod super terram nostre ecclesie resident aut mansiones habent vel terras laboratoreas excolunt, tam de vineis quam de agris, quartas persolvant, sicut antea antiqui predecessorum suorum fecerunt, sic faciant ipsi.

[2] Et nullus episcopus successorum nostrorum aliam superpositam eis imponat, sed omnis Parentinus, tam clerus quam populus, et heredes eorum in hunc modum quiete, secure, libere habeat et possideat sine contradictione hominum, et etiam supradictus clerus et populus Parentinus predictas terras, mansiones, vineas et eorum heredes habeant potestatem vendendi, donandi, comutandi, alienandi, seu pro anima iudicandi, vel quicquid eis placuerit faciendi ad censum predictum reddendum ecclesie sancte Marie et sancti Mauri.

[3] Et insuper, tam per nos quam per successores nostros, statuimus, ordinamus ut Parentini canonici precipue in cathedrali ecclesia Deo et sancte Marie et sancto Mauro martiri servientes decimam omnium habitantium in Parentina civitate sine aliqua conditione habeant, tam de omnibus frugibus terre quam de animalibus, et quiete ac pacifice possideant.

[4] Volumus etiam ut ipsi canonici habeant terciam partem de salinis quas habemus in insula que vocatur Brivona, et habeant terciam partem de piscatione que provenit ad ecclesiam sancti Mauri de ripa Lemi; insuper habeant terciam partem de molendinis que habemus in aquis que vocantur Gradule.

[5] Iterato volumus et disponimus quod clerus Parentinus, tam maiores quam minores, habeant XII convivia annuatim cum episcopo Parentino:

  • primum in Festivitate Omnium Sanctorum,
  • secundum in Sollemnitate Sancti Mauri,
  • tertium in Nativitate Domini,
  • quartum in Epiphania,
  • quintum in Carnis Levamine,
  • sextum in Dominica de Palma,
  • septimum in Cena Domini,
  • octavum in Resurrectione Domini,
  • nonum in Ascensione Domini,
  • decimum in Pentecoste,
  • undecimum in Festivitate Sancti Petri Apostoli,
  • duodecimum in Assumptione Sancte Marie Virginis.

[6] Volumus etiam, quod nullus episcopus ex successoribus nostris vel aliquis tirannus presumat gravare vel molestare aliquem clericum Parentinum ex confratribus nostris, videlicet de ipsis qui in ecclesia sancte Marie virginis et sancti Mauri martiris serviunt, nec ipsi clerici Parentini quartas vel decimas alicui persone aliquo in tempore dare teneantur.

Nos quidem supranominatus Eufrasius episcopus, si in vita nostra vel post obitum nostrum successores nostri aut aliqua submissa persona hominum per aliquod ius vel ingenium aut temporis spacium contra hanc constitutionis nostre paginam ire, corrumpere aut infringere temptare voluerit, maledictionem Dei omnipotentis et beate Marie virginis et beatorum apostolorum Petri et Pauli et sancti Mauri martiris et aliorum sanctorum se noverit incursurum, et post hec omnia componat auri libras XX clero et populo Parentino, et hoc privilegium nostre ordinationis inperpetuum firmum et inviolatum permaneat.

Ego Petrus diaconus Parentine civitatis tabellio scripsi complevi et roboravi.

Ego Elias episcopus meis temporibus propria manu scripsi.
Ego Ioannes episcopus meis temporibus propria manu scripsi.
Ego Raschivus episcopus meis temporibus propria manu scripsi.
Ego Angelus meis temporibus.
Ego Stauratius episcopus temporibus mea manu scripsi.
Ego Laurentius episcopus et cetera.
Ego Iulianus episcopus et cetera.
Ego Dominicus episcopus manu mea scripsi.
Ego Antonius episcopus meis temporibus et cetera.
Ego Staudemimdus episcopus meis temporibus mea manu.
Ego Eripertus episcopus meis temporibus et cetera.
Ego Andreas episcopus meis temporibus mea manu scripsi.
Ego Adam episcopus et cetera.
Ego Andreas episcopus et cetera.
Ego Sigimpuldus episcopus et cetera.
Ego Engilmerus episcopus et cetera.
Ego Arnus episcopus meis temporibus et cetera.
Ego Ursus episcopus et cetera.
Ego Adalmarus episcopus et cetera.
Ego Cadolus episcopus et cetera.
Ego Paganus episcopus et cetera.
Ego Bertoldus episcopus et cetera.
Ego Terungus episcopus propria manu et cetera.
Ego Rodemundus episcopus meis temporibus et cetera.
Ego Vincentius episcopus.
Ego Ubertus episcopus.
Ego Petrus episcopus totum istud confirmavi.
Ego Ioannes episcopus temporibus meis mea manu.
Ego Fulgerius episcopus temporibus meis mea manu.

[additio saec. XIII]

In nomine Patris et Filii et Spiritus Sancti, amen.

Nos quidem Adalper divina providentia Parentinus episcopus licet indignus notum fieri cupimus, tam presentibus quam futuris, quod videntes, considerantes et diligenter adtendentes privilegium pie recordationis Eufrasii predecessoris nostri et aliorum predecessorum nostrorum vetustate consumptum, ne ecclesia Parentina vel ipsum Capitulum Parentinum in posterum suo iure vel dignitate privaretur, auxiliante Domino ipsum privilegium bona fide renovari fecimus et, ut habetur in isto, ita continebatur in illo.

Critical apparatus

apro pater coni. Cusin.

Selected Bibliography
Bernardo Benussi, "Privilegio eufrasiano," Atti e memorie della Società istriana di archeologia e storia patria 8/1-2 (1892): pp. 49-86.
Fabio Cusin, "Il 'Privilegio Eufrasiano' e la Charta libertatis del Comune di Parenzo," Archivio veneto, ser. 5, 30-31 (1942): pp. 65-84.
Editor's Notes

The document is clearly a forgery, most probably made in the first half of the 13th century during the term of bishop Adalper (terminus ante quem 1222). It remains a debated question whether the entire document was forged or whether this is a case of a heavily interpolated original.

According to Benussi (cited above), the basis of the 13th century forgery is indeed an authentic 6th century document, but this interpretation is extremely difficult to support.

As was noted by Fabio Cusin (cited above), almost nothing remains of the supposed 6th-century original: magister militum indeed being a Byzantine official, but at the same time he could not have been the advocate of the Church of Poreč as the forgery would have him.

According to Cusin, whose paper remains the most detailed breakdown of the charter, the privilegium was composed by mixing no less than three older, authentic charters. The first, and the oldest, would stem from the Early Middles Ages, a Carolingian-era carta upon which the protocolus was styled: the apprecatio feliciter, missi dominici, triumphatore augusto would stem from this nowadays lost late 8th/early 9th-century charter. Also, the sanctio would feature elements from this charter as well.

The dispositio would stem from two different charters. The older one, dating from circa 1050 to 1150, would be a charter regulating the relation between the cathedral chapter of Poreč and the bishops. This older charter would be the basis behind chapters 3, 4, and 5. The younger one would be the charta libertatis of the Commune of Poreč whereby the citizens of Poreč would be free to dispose of Church properties as long as they would pay the standard fees, the quarter of the tithe. This nowadays lost charta libertatis would be a product of a twelfth-century podestarial culture, composed by the chancellery of a podestà or by his university-educated jurist. Phrases such as Volumus, precipimus, statuimus ut; et insuper, tam per nos quam per successores nostros statuimus, ordinamus ut; iterato volumus et disponimus; would all stem from this charter of liberty. Moreover, chapters 1 and 2 would also stem from the charta libertatis. The argument is primarily based on the comparison of three other charters issued by the bishops of Poreč legislating similar freedoms: the first accorded to the villagers of San Salvatoris (Kandler, CDI, doc. 89), the second to the dwellers of Castiglione (Kandler, CDI, doc. 163), and the third to the inhabitants of Vrsars (Kandler, CDI, doc. 179) - all three of these charters will be edited here presently.

Finally, the paragraph hereby numbered 6 would be an addition inserted by the notary in 1222.

In essence, argues Cusin, "the true purpose of its [Euphrasius' privilege] compilation [was] the codification of patrimonial obligations in a period in which they risked being forgotten". (Cusin, cited above, p. 81).

Although much of Cusin's argumentation borders on conjectures, his conclusions that the charter in question stems from 12th/13th century and that it is not based on the supposed 6th-century original, as argued by Benussi, remain valid and ought to be preferred over other, less critical interpretations.

How to Cite
First citation: Josip Banic (ed.), Fontes Istrie medievalis, vol. 1: A seculo VI usque ad 803, doc. 543_EP, fontesistrie.eu/543_EP (last access: date).
Subsequent citations: FIM, 1: doc. 543_EP.